Symantec ST0-247 : Symantec Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX Technical Assessment Exam
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Exam Number : ST0-247
Exam Name : Symantec Cluster Server 6.1 for UNIX Technical Assessment
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FEATURESurviving Hacker assaults Proves that each Cloud Has a Silver LiningBy Kirby Cheng
after I first realized i might been hacked, i assumed, "Oh, my God, they in fact did it!" while making an attempt to recuperate from the shock, I had to name the supervisors of the departments with capabilities suffering from the loss of the library's server. In a seemingly calm voice, I told them one at a time, "Sorry to help you be aware of, their server is down; it has been hacked into." today, most libraries' elements are net-based mostly. You shouldn't have to be a server administrator to bear in mind the warmth i was feeling when my server was hacked into on a summer time day in 2002.
I work on the Franklin D. Schurz Library at Indiana institution South Bend. The library serves about 7,000 students and 300 faculty contributors. In late 2001, Schurz Library bought its first server, a Dell PowerEdge 2550. as the head of library tips technology, it was my job to deploy and run the server. After "scrubbing" the computing device to become aware of hardware defects, I put in the windows 2000 Server operating equipment. Working with the library's Webmaster, I configured the information superhighway information Server (IIS). It hosted an online path net site, an interlibrary loan (sick) FTP doc beginning web page, and a digital reference carrier. It also hosted one of the most library's crucial files, equivalent to these for the periodical holdings checklist. in fact, the library's first server become also the primary creation server I administrated independently. although certified by using Microsoft to manage the server, I had not handled a complex gadget emergency.
the first hacker attack passed off when i used to be a rookie administrator. Late at nighttime, the campus IT department's network monitoring equipment detected an unusually high extent of traffic originating from the IP handle of their server. The phenomenon resembled whatever thing that had taken vicinity on a departmental lab server not lengthy earlier than: A server had been hijacked and became getting used as a hacker's launching pad. The safety surveillance system impulsively bring to an end their server's community connection. The IT security officer instructed me that he would resume their server's community connection simplest after they entirely investigated the incident.
The server turned into a complete mess: a couple of important library capabilities lay paralyzed. nevertheless, i noticed that there became no such issue as an "get away clause" in a server administrator's job description, so I all started to shift my focal point to the cleanup. i was desperate to see if the server would still boot up. fortunately, it did. This gave me some confidence, as a result of a working working gadget would make hurt evaluation and protection investigation plenty simpler. once I took a glance on the hurt, I found that some vital net info had turn into corrupted and that the IIS couldn't function competently. I then investigated how the hacker got into their server. To my shock, the security logs didn't catch any illegal login attempts. I did not locate any new, unknown person bills, and the device privileges to alter the latest security guidelines hadn't been invoked. I also discovered no suspicious activities after reviewing the server's baseline.
besides the fact that children, after inspecting the login records as soon as again, i realized that their net technician changed into on-line when the suspiciously huge volume of records was being downloaded. So I contacted him, and it grew to become out that he turned into a night owl who favourite working in the evening hours when no person troubled him. On the old nighttime, while he became tuning the IIS configurations after downloading some info to his domestic laptop, his connection with the faraway server changed into all at once severed. It gave the impression to me there had been no try and hack at that point. The data have been unintentionally broken by using the IT department team of workers contributors' "friendly-hearth." after they tried to quarantine their server, they bring to a halt their internet technician's remote network connection. as a result of some crucial data have been open at the time, they grew to be corrupted. similar things happen once in a while when a server is wrongly shut down. This may explain why I had now not caught an outsider and why handiest definite internet services had complications.
cleansing Up the Flood
i was pretty confident that this turned into no longer an invasion, so I determined to make use of the backup tapes to restoration the corrupted data. as a result of the dangers panic with replacing equipment information, I had certainly not tried to repair the whole C: drive or the equipment state facts considering the fact that the server had been in creation. Now I had the probability to observe a system recuperation and to test numerous methods to resuscitate the server. it could possibly sound contradictory to associate a "unhealthy" situation with a "decent" learning chance. Yet, rather often once they continue to exist a massive catastrophe, we're taught something that they could not have learned on a daily day.
I advised to the members of the IT branch that they trust my friendly-fireplace conception as the trigger for the incident. no longer reasonably satisfied, they performed their own investigation. regardless of the records that they had found no hint of a break-in and that my equipment healing efforts had resumed the foremost IIS functions, they decided that they crucial to rebuild the server. I understood their resolution. They suspected that the incident become a security breach when it happened, and, just to be safe, they would fairly deal with it as a wreck-in. Following the crucial safety techniques, they rebuilt the server. They also took this chance to increase the net server's configurations.
making ready for Stormy Days
This incident prompt an alarm for me. i realized that server emergencies were not mere situations in practising manuals. They could occur any time to their system, and i vital to be prepared for them. the first thing I had to do became make certain that i'd at all times have respectable backup tapes attainable. So in my Server Administration techniques, I stipulated the special occasions when a standard (full) backup should still be carried out, moreover the activities ones that have been scheduled on all workdays. as an instance, with a view to have an image of a clear server, I knew i'd should make a full backup after I loaded the working system. i would do the identical factor once more after I configured the IIS or applied a huge service pack; then i'd archive the tapes. once I had the original error-free important data on the backup tapes, i would be in a position to promptly rebuild the server and resume any impaired library capabilities. To ensure a tape would work once I crucial it, i would go extra to opt for a noncritical file and do a trial file restoration. together with making the tape backups, i would update the Emergency restore Disk after I had patched the server's operating gadget so that i might have the latest essential gadget information I crucial to recuperate from a boot failure.
I also determined to replace my documentation. (I accept as true with up to date, accurate documentation elementary for a quick system restoration.) for instance, i'd patch the server after which checklist the date and the vital device patches I utilized. With this suggestions, I might automatically come to a decision what patches I mandatory to reinstall after I had restored the system state the use of an past backup tape. similarly, if a purple vital error regarded in the gadget log, i'd doc its content material and the time of its first prevalence in order that I could select an error-free tape to change the corrupted system information.
although these techniques proved to be a very good shortcut for repairing definite equipment screw ups, the usage of the backups to exchange the problematical device files became now not a cure-interested in server malfunctions. One reason was that windows 2000 Server's built-in backup turned into now not a full-characteristic file backup/restoration utility. It often failed to replace certain open system info. This supposed that i'd must be prepared for the worst-case situation. In case the backup did not work, i might have to eliminate and reinstall the linked windows components, such because the IIS, and even rebuild the working device. this is able to regularly cause reconfiguration. To be prepared for rebuilding a server from scratch, i'd doc the server's baseline, person money owed, file device structure, and file permissions for important file folders. For a third-birthday party-run software, i would observe the dealer's help telephone quantity. often, carriers needed to reinstall their utility after they rebuilt their server.
due to the fact ours is a production server, I couldn't afford to let it's down too lengthy. To conclude the reconfiguration rapidly, I crucial to have accurate, specified, system-environment statistics in hand. To solve this issue, I decided to make use of screen photographs to checklist the a must-have server add-ons' complicated configurations. Now, I additionally periodically take display photographs of the safety patches applied on the server. I do this for two explanations. On the one hand, the monitor photographs deliver updated protection assistance for a gadget recuperation; then again, they might well exonerate the library's group of workers participants should still they be accused of negligence. These statistics prove that they make every try to secure the server.
at last, fearing a different lightning bolt, I began communicating greater commonly with the campus IT branch body of workers contributors. i used to be chiefly cautious about setting up far off-entry communications. obviously, I begun notifying them if a librarian wanted to make use of the far flung computer connection on his computer to work on the server. I also informed them if their library introduced an application that changed into administrated by way of a far flung vendor to the server.
one more surprising Storm
Ever when you consider that the preliminary incident, I had been diligently patching the server and monitoring its safety logs. just about 2 years had passed, and no essential security breaches had befell. despite the fact, nothing lasts perpetually: My string of sunny days led to may also 2004. whereas i was doing a movements assessment of the safety logs, I discovered that the system had caught a few HackTool adware viruses. Lurking in a pc, the viruses could discover and decrypt login data, equivalent to usernames and passwords. After checking Symantec AntiVirus, i noticed that all of the spyware viruses had been quarantined. I endured to probe numerous parts of the gadget for evidence of feasible infiltration. I found no suspicious phenomena. there have been no illegal person debts or questionable login attempts. I also demonstrated the login routine of the privileged users. The server's baseline turned into untouched. I found no unauthorized web services, comparable to an illegal FTP site, in the IIS. All gadget capabilities operating below "equipment and functions" have been additionally justified. There turned into no rogue method running, either. prior to now, I had said to the assist desk employees when the same spy virus changed into found on staff workstations. They told me that provided that the virus turned into beneath quarantine, I needn't be concerned about it. pondering it should be would becould very well be just an additional nuisance, I felt just a little relieved.
For the leisure of the week, I watched the server carefully. several days handed with out viruses. despite the fact, on the following Monday, i used to be dismayed to see the purple errors acting once more in the event Viewer. Over the weekend, the HackTool viruses had come again to hang-out me! Realizing that the viruses can also have viciously infiltrated their server, I said the incident to the IT staffers. They dispatched two greater-professional community administrators to the library. Following the institution's safety-breaches investigation processes, they first disconnected the server's network cable. Now, unluckily, I needed to repeat the scene described at first of this article—telling the entire library that the server was down. To lower the interruption of the library's capabilities, my IT colleagues and i quickly transferred the essential web features to the web servers of different departments and resumed the affected features. They scanned the connected net data earlier than they reloaded them in order that an endemic would no longer unfold to the brand new hosts.
monitoring Down the Leaks
Our 2nd step turned into to examine how the intruders managed to compromise the latest security device and what they had carried out to the server. They begun their probe via searching at the data recorded via the Symantec AntiVirus. through viewing the items logged below "Quarantine" and "Virus historical past," they were able to find the contaminated information. After inspecting the quarantined files and the info linked with them, they surmised that the hacker had bypassed the IIS and deploy an illegal FTP web page at an unconventional vicinity within the server. using distinct file names associated with the wide-spread FTP purposes because the keyword phrases, they searched the server. They tried to pin down the application used through the infiltrators. ultimately, they narrowed down the names on their offender list to EZ-FTP. They traced this to the hackers' hidden FTP website—a folder in a "cave" surrounded by using legit files.
The folder changed into the hackers' treasure chest. searching this chest, they found a large number of compressed MPEG and MOV info, which didn't surprise us. What they didn't are expecting to locate were the hackers' inside working files, together with an in depth network-scanning document of their server. Hackers commonly scan networks to select a suitable target before they assault. They use the technique to find out the server's system potential and its security ambiance. A hacker's finest prey should still have two characteristics. First, its equipment potential may still be gigantic ample to make hacking rewarding. 2d, its protection should still be vulnerable sufficient for the hackers to discover loopholes. alas, for some motive, their server met the hackers' criteria, and they fell sufferer to them.
moreover the scanning report, there changed into a catalog of the function films that had been converted from DVD and stored at the FTP site. The catalog contained many Hollywood blockbusters. along with the catalog had been the conduct codes governing reasonable use of the web site that held their stolen houses. One code required the web page users to limit their connection time to as brief as possible to keep away from being detected. an additional one warned: "Hacked, should still now not be hacked once again." The intruders feared that a different hacker would by chance wreck their carefully developed nest. opposite to their stereotyped graphic in their minds, these hackers did care about protection—but only when it pertained to their unlawful FTP website. As bizarre because the documents were, the real eye-opener was a property title to their server. a group of German hackers issued the title to themselves. Clicking the file, they saw the brand of the neighborhood—a colourful graphic of set up medieval knights. the first sentence read: "team hacked, crew use [sic]." The sentence reflected the concepts of collectivism and common property. I couldn't support admiring these Germans. They have been authentic fellow countrymen of Karl Marx, for they'd integrated the Communist ideology into their documents.
One ultimate Lightning Bolt
earlier than concluding their investigation, they copied all of the hackers' info and documented the whole investigation technique. Later they would use these files to file a security-breach record with the larger-stage IT security workplace. even so, their saga continued.
a number of days after they had taken returned their unlawfully seized property, these digital-age knights rode back to their campus and infiltrated a lot of workstations. Honoring their knighthood lifestyle, they spared their important files, however they made bound they knew that they had been invincible and will penetrate their defense each time they glad. making a choice on up the gauntlet, they quickly drove out the invaders and rebuilt their network safety defenses.
Our third step turned into to repair the server's services. in keeping with the college's security laws, a server's working system have to be scrapped and rebuilt as soon as its protection had been compromised. while the server turned into down, they searched the company's web web page and up to date the server's company ware. They validated and reformatted the tough disks and up-to-date the present documentation. Naturally, they additionally upgraded the server's operating device to the Microsoft home windows Server 2003. With my correct, complete documentation, they effortlessly reconfigured the IIS. After patching the server and scanning its ports for talents security dangers, they reloaded the web files that had been filtered by means of the antivirus application. at last, they did a trial run and scan of ports for vulnerabilities before they put the server again in creation.
Seeing the Silver Lining
As illustrated with the aid of my journey, when a equipment emergency occurs, they may additionally consider as if heavy clouds are overhead. youngsters, I rapidly composed myself and survived the storm, and that i turned these nerve-racking incidents into alternatives for developing new technical skills. in addition, I received precious fingers-on event in security-breach investigation and system restoration.
break-ins and other equipment emergencies are part of their lives as programs librarians. every day, they face new challenges. however one issue is constant: No rely what happens, the sun additionally rises. they are able to find that each cloud has a silver lining.
issues TO back UP
• The server with the original error-free operating equipment (full backup, in archive)
• The drivers of the third-celebration gadgets (in archive)
• The original, error-free server after including fundamental features and significant information (full backup, in archive)
• The server correct before applying security patches (full backup)
• The server correct after applying security patches (full backup; archive the tapes concerning important provider packs)
• 30-day events backups (full backup)
• Emergency fix Disk (update the disk after each and every principal gadget exchange)
• important non-system information (lower back up the up-to-date files to a network drive)
things TO document
• foremost purposes run on the server
• Configurations of the essential equipment capabilities and most important functions
• Server's baseline
• protection patches applied
• consumer money owed
• File gadget structure
• File permissions for vital file folders
• Logs of the principal device activities
• Logs of the preliminary occurrences of critical errors
• Contact information for the third-birthday party carriers
• Contact counsel for the server's company
WHAT I realized FROM THE break-INS
1. don't have any illusions. As quickly as a server is connected to a community, it hazards being attacked.
2. The internet server should be blanketed by way of a fantastic firewall.
3. follow all essential security patches acceptable for the server.
4. recognize the server's baseline and be continuously alert to rogue procedures and unlawful functions.
5. retain the administrators' passwords as comfortable as possible.
6. try to be mindful hackers' intellect-units and be prevalent with their most-used thoughts.
HOW i'd contend with A safety-BREACH INCIDENT
1. Disconnect the server from the network.
2. record the incident to the IT protection officer.
three. preserve the fame of the server unchanged.
four. Make a full backup of the server to preserve tips.
5. conduct a damage assessment.
6. learn the way the hacker compromised the security.
7. doc the entire investigation.
1. investigate and replace the documentation.
2. Reformat the challenging disks.
three. replace the firm ware.
4. Reload or Strengthen the working equipment.
5. Re-patch the server.
6. Configure most important system features.
7. verify the server.
8. Filter all of the non-equipment files for viruses, then reload the information.
9. Reconnect the server with the community.
10. Do a scan for network port vulnerabilities.
eleven. test the absolutely loaded server.
12. update the documentation and archive the brand new crucial backups.
13. Put the server back in creation.
McClure, Stuart; Scambray, Joel; and Kurtz, George (2001). Hacking exposed: community security secrets and options, 3rd ed. big apple: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Russel, Charlie and Crawford, Sharon (2000). Microsoft home windows 2000 Server Administrator's accomplice. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Press.
Stanek, William R. (2002). Microsoft windows 2000 Administrator's Pocket consultant, 2nd ed. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Press.
Kirby Cheng is head of library tips know-how at Franklin D. Schurz Library at Indiana tuition South Bend. He holds an M.L.I.S. from the school of TexasAustin. he is additionally a Microsoft licensed gadget Administrator (MCSA). His e mail is firstname.lastname@example.org.