Symantec ST0-147 : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.0 for Unix Technical Assessment Exam
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Exam Number : ST0-147
Exam Name : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server 6.0 for Unix Technical Assessment
Vendor Name : Symantec
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Symantec Administration test contents
FEATURESurviving Hacker attacks Proves that every Cloud Has a Silver LiningBy Kirby Cheng
when I first realized i would been hacked, i believed, "Oh, my God, they really did it!" whereas trying to Strengthen
from the shock, I had to call the supervisors of the departments with features affected by the loss of the library's server. In a seemingly calm voice, I instructed them one by one, "Sorry to permit you to comprehend, their server is down; it has been hacked into." these days, most libraries' resources are internet-based mostly. You shouldn't have to be a server administrator to take note the warmth i used to be feeling when my server was hacked into on a summer time day in 2002.
I work at the Franklin D. Schurz Library at Indiana tuition South Bend. The library serves about 7,000 college students and 300 faculty participants. In late 2001, Schurz Library bought its first server, a Dell PowerEdge 2550. as the head of library suggestions know-how, it changed into my job to installation and run the server. After "scrubbing" the machine to realize hardware defects, I put in the home windows 2000 Server operating equipment. Working with the library's Webmaster, I configured the web information Server (IIS). It hosted an internet route web web site, an interlibrary mortgage (sick) FTP document birth web page, and a digital reference provider. It additionally hosted one of the library's essential info, such as these for the periodical holdings list. really, the library's first server become also the primary construction server I administrated independently. despite the fact licensed by way of Microsoft to control the server, I had now not dealt with a posh equipment emergency.
the primary hacker assault came about when i used to be a rookie administrator. Late at night, the campus IT department's community monitoring system detected an unusually excessive volume of site visitors originating from the IP tackle of their server. The phenomenon resembled anything that had taken area on a departmental lab server now not long before: A server had been hijacked and turned into getting used as a hacker's launching pad. The security surveillance equipment hastily cut off their server's community connection. The IT security officer advised me that he would resume their server's network connection most effective after they wholly investigated the incident.
The server become a total mess: a number of crucial library features lay paralyzed. nonetheless, i realized that there become no such factor as an "get away clause" in a server administrator's job description, so I started to shift my focus to the cleanup. i used to be desperate to see if the server would still boot up. thankfully, it did. This gave me some self belief, as a result of a working operating gadget would make hurt evaluation and safety investigation a lot less complicated. when I took a look at the hurt, I found that some critical web info had turn into corrupted and that the IIS could not function correctly. I then investigated how the hacker bought into their server. To my shock, the safety logs did not trap any illegal login makes an attempt. I failed to find any new, unknown person bills, and the equipment privileges to alter the latest safety policies hadn't been invoked. I also discovered no suspicious actions after reviewing the server's baseline.
although, after examining the login records once again, i realized that their net technician become on-line when the suspiciously massive amount of records was being downloaded. So I contacted him, and it became out that he turned into an evening owl who favourite working in the night hours when no one troubled him. On the old nighttime, while he was tuning the IIS configurations after downloading some info to his home notebook, his reference to the remote server become severed. It appeared to me there had been no try to hack at that element. The information had been unintentionally damaged via the IT branch workforce participants' "friendly-hearth." once they tried to quarantine their server, they all at once bring to a halt their web technician's remote community connection. as a result of some essential info had been open at the time, they grew to be corrupted. identical things occur once in a while when a server is badly shut down. This may explain why I had now not caught an interloper and why simplest definite internet capabilities had issues.
cleansing Up the Flood
i was relatively assured that this became no longer an invasion, so I decided to make use of the backup tapes to repair the corrupted info. as a result of the dangers concerned with changing gadget info, I had certainly not tried to repair the whole C: power or the equipment state data in view that the server had been in creation. Now I had the probability to practice a gadget recuperation and to test a considerable number of procedures to resuscitate the server. it may well sound contradictory to affiliate a "bad" circumstance with a "first rate" discovering chance. Yet, somewhat commonly once they continue to exist an incredible catastrophe, we're taught whatever thing that they couldn't have learned on a regular day.
I suggested to the contributors of the IT branch that they consider my pleasant-fireplace concept as the trigger for the incident. no longer somewhat satisfied, they performed their personal investigation. regardless of the data that they'd discovered no trace of a break-in and that my gadget recuperation efforts had resumed the essential IIS capabilities, they decided that they vital to rebuild the server. I understood their choice. They suspected that the incident turned into a safety breach when it occurred, and, simply to be protected, they'd fairly treat it as a spoil-in. Following the valuable protection methods, they rebuilt the server. They also took this possibility to enhance the net server's configurations.
preparing for Stormy Days
This incident activate an alarm for me. i noticed that server emergencies have been no longer mere situations in practicing manuals. They may occur any time to their equipment, and that i essential to be organized for them. the primary thing I had to do become make certain that i would all the time have decent backup tapes attainable. So in my Server Administration strategies, I stipulated the particular occasions when a traditional (full) backup should still be carried out, moreover the movements ones which were scheduled on all workdays. as an example, in order to have an image of a clear server, I knew i might should make a full backup after I loaded the operating gadget. i'd do the same thing again after I configured the IIS or applied an immense carrier pack; then i'd archive the tapes. when I had the long-established error-free vital data on the backup tapes, i might be capable of right away rebuild the server and resume any impaired library features. To be sure a tape would work once I necessary it, i would go additional to choose a noncritical file and do a trial file restoration. along with making the tape backups, i would replace the Emergency restore Disk after I had patched the server's working equipment so that i'd have the present essential device files I vital to Strengthen
from a boot failure.
I additionally decided to replace my documentation. (I believe up-to-date, correct documentation fundamental for a fast device recuperation.) as an example, i would patch the server and then list the date and the crucial system patches I utilized. With this information, I might automatically decide what patches I essential to reinstall after I had restored the equipment state using an previous backup tape. in a similar way, if a red crucial error looked in the system log, i might doc its content and the time of its first prevalence so that I could choose an error-free tape to change the corrupted system information.
youngsters these tactics proved to be a good shortcut for repairing certain device disasters, the usage of the backups to substitute the tricky gadget information became no longer a treatment-desirous about server malfunctions. One rationale changed into that windows 2000 Server's built-in backup became now not a full-function file backup/restoration utility. It frequently did not change certain open device files. This supposed that i might need to be organized for the worst-case situation. In case the backup did not work, i might have to eradicate and reinstall the linked windows components, such as the IIS, and even rebuild the working equipment. this would commonly cause reconfiguration. To be prepared for rebuilding a server from scratch, i would document the server's baseline, consumer money owed, file device structure, and file permissions for crucial file folders. For a 3rd-party-run application, i would note the dealer's aid mobilephone quantity. often, companies had to reinstall their software after they rebuilt their server.
for the reason that ours is a construction server, I couldn't afford to let it be down too lengthy. To conclude the reconfiguration straight away, I obligatory to have accurate, targeted, device-surroundings facts in hand. To solve this problem, I decided to make use of monitor pictures to listing the a must have server accessories' advanced configurations. Now, I also periodically take display shots of the security patches applied on the server. I do this for two factors. On the one hand, the reveal pictures deliver updated protection counsel for a system recovery; in spite of this, they may well exonerate the library's workforce contributors should they be accused of negligence. These facts show that they make each try to cozy the server.
eventually, fearing a different lightning bolt, I started speaking extra generally with the campus IT department personnel members. i was notably careful about organising faraway-entry communications. for sure, I began notifying them if a librarian wanted to make use of the remote laptop connection on his notebook to work on the server. I also recommended them if their library added an software that became administrated with the aid of a far off dealer to the server.
a different sudden Storm
Ever because the preliminary incident, I had been diligently patching the server and monitoring its safety logs. essentially 2 years had handed, and no fundamental safety breaches had occurred. although, nothing lasts forever: My string of sunny days resulted in can also 2004. while i was doing a movements evaluate of the protection logs, I found that the system had caught several HackTool spyware viruses. Lurking in a pc, the viruses may find and decrypt login statistics, comparable to usernames and passwords. After checking Symantec AntiVirus, i spotted that all the spyware viruses had been quarantined. I endured to probe a number of ingredients of the system for facts of possible infiltration. I found no suspicious phenomena. there were no illegal user bills or questionable login makes an attempt. I also demonstrated the login hobbies of the privileged users. The server's baseline changed into untouched. I found no unauthorized web features, akin to an unlawful FTP web site, within the IIS. All equipment functions running below "system and applications" were additionally justified. There turned into no rogue technique working, either. previously, I had said to the assist desk workers when the same undercover agent virus was discovered on group of workers workstations. They instructed me that provided that the virus turned into below quarantine, I need not be troubled about it. considering it could be just yet another nuisance, I felt a little bit relieved.
For the leisure of the week, I watched the server carefully. a number of days passed devoid of viruses. despite the fact, on the following Monday, i used to be dismayed to see the pink errors acting again within the adventure Viewer. Over the weekend, the HackTool viruses had come lower back to hang-out me! Realizing that the viruses might also have viciously infiltrated their server, I mentioned the incident to the IT staffers. They dispatched two greater-pro community directors to the library. Following the tuition's safety-breaches investigation techniques, they first disconnected the server's network cable. Now, unfortunately, I needed to repeat the scene described in the beginning of this text—telling the total library that the server became down. To reduce the interruption of the library's capabilities, my IT colleagues and that i instantly transferred the most important internet services to the internet servers of other departments and resumed the affected features. They scanned the related internet data earlier than they reloaded them so that a deadly disease would now not spread to the new hosts.
monitoring Down the Leaks
Our second step was to investigate how the intruders managed to compromise the latest security device and what they had achieved to the server. They all started their probe with the aid of searching at the data recorded with the aid of the Symantec AntiVirus. by using viewing the gadgets logged below "Quarantine" and "Virus history," they were able to locate the infected info. After inspecting the quarantined data and the information linked with them, they surmised that the hacker had bypassed the IIS and install an unlawful FTP web page at an unconventional place within the server. using diverse file names associated with the popular FTP functions as the key phrases, they searched the server. They tried to pin down the software used by means of the infiltrators. finally, they narrowed down the names on their offender list to EZ-FTP. They traced this to the hackers' hidden FTP website—a folder in a "cave" surrounded by way of professional info.
The folder became the hackers' treasure chest. browsing this chest, they found a large variety of compressed MPEG and MOV data, which didn't shock us. What they did not expect to locate had been the hackers' internal working files, including an in depth network-scanning report of their server. Hackers frequently scan networks to opt for an appropriate target earlier than they attack. They use the technique to discover the server's device capacity and its security ambiance. A hacker's premiere prey should have two features. First, its system capability should still be massive sufficient to make hacking worthwhile. 2nd, its safety should still be vulnerable enough for the hackers to find loopholes. unfortunately, for some cause, their server met the hackers' standards, and they fell victim to them.
apart from the scanning record, there become a catalog of the characteristic films that had been transformed from DVD and saved on the FTP website. The catalog contained many Hollywood blockbusters. along with the catalog had been the habits codes governing reasonable use of the site that held their stolen homes. One code required the website users to restrict their connection time to as brief as feasible to avoid being detected. a further one warned: "Hacked, may still now not be hacked once again." The intruders feared that an extra hacker would accidentally spoil their cautiously built nest. contrary to their stereotyped photograph in their minds, these hackers did care about protection—but only when it pertained to their unlawful FTP website. As bizarre as the files had been, the true eye-opener became a property title to their server. a bunch of German hackers issued the title to themselves. Clicking the file, they noticed the logo of the neighborhood—a colourful photo of set up medieval knights. the first sentence study: "crew hacked, team use [sic]." The sentence reflected the ideas of collectivism and customary property. I couldn't assist admiring these Germans. They were real fellow countrymen of Karl Marx, for they had integrated the Communist ideology into their documents.
One final Lightning Bolt
earlier than concluding their investigation, they copied all of the hackers' data and documented the entire investigation method. Later we'd use these files to file a protection-breach file with the better-stage IT security workplace. in spite of this, their saga persevered.
a couple of days after they had taken lower back their unlawfully seized property, these digital-age knights rode returned to their campus and infiltrated a large number of workstations. Honoring their knighthood subculture, they spared their essential info, however they made bound they knew that they have been invincible and could penetrate their protection each time they blissful. opting for up the gauntlet, they directly drove out the invaders and rebuilt their community security defenses.
Our third step changed into to fix the server's features. in keeping with the school's protection laws, a server's operating system must be scrapped and rebuilt as soon as its safety had been compromised. while the server become down, they searched the brand's net site and updated the server's company ware. They tested and reformatted the hard disks and up to date the latest documentation. Naturally, they also upgraded the server's operating system to the Microsoft home windows Server 2003. With my accurate, finished documentation, they with no trouble reconfigured the IIS. After patching the server and scanning its ports for abilities protection risks, they reloaded the internet info that had been filtered through the antivirus utility. at last, they did a trial run and scan of ports for vulnerabilities before they put the server back in creation.
Seeing the Silver Lining
As illustrated through my journey, when a gadget emergency happens, they may additionally think as if heavy clouds are overhead. although, I right now composed myself and survived the storm, and that i turned these tense incidents into opportunities for constructing new technical talents. furthermore, I won valuable hands-on journey in safety-breach investigation and device restoration.
smash-ins and other equipment emergencies are part of their lives as programs librarians. day by day, they face new challenges. but one factor is consistent: No count what happens, the sun also rises. they will discover that each cloud has a silver lining.
things TO again UP
• The server with the original error-free operating device (full backup, in archive)
• The drivers of the third-celebration instruments (in archive)
• The normal, error-free server after adding foremost features and significant info (full backup, in archive)
• The server appropriate earlier than making use of protection patches (full backup)
• The server right after applying safety patches (full backup; archive the tapes regarding fundamental service packs)
• 30-day routine backups (full backup)
• Emergency repair Disk (replace the disk after each and every principal equipment exchange)
• important non-system files (back up the updated files to a community drive)
things TO document
• essential purposes run on the server
• Configurations of the crucial device services and main applications
• Server's baseline
• security patches applied
• person money owed
• File device constitution
• File permissions for vital file folders
• Logs of the principal system activities
• Logs of the preliminary occurrences of vital errors
• Contact information for the third-celebration companies
• Contact advice for the server's brand
WHAT I learned FROM THE smash-INS
1. haven't any illusions. As quickly as a server is connected to a network, it hazards being attacked.
2. The internet server ought to be covered via a fantastic firewall.
three. follow all vital security patches appropriate for the server.
4. understand the server's baseline and be at all times alert to rogue techniques and unlawful functions.
5. hold the directors' passwords as relaxed as possible.
6. are trying to understand hackers' intellect-units and be usual with their most-used suggestions.
HOW i'd contend with A security-BREACH INCIDENT
1. Disconnect the server from the network.
2. report the incident to the IT security officer.
3. maintain the status of the server unchanged.
four. Make a full backup of the server to preserve guidance.
5. behavior a harm assessment.
6. find out how the hacker compromised the safety.
7. document the complete investigation.
1. check and replace the documentation.
2. Reformat the hard disks.
three. update the enterprise ware.
four. Reload or upgrade the working gadget.
5. Re-patch the server.
6. Configure foremost system capabilities.
7. examine the server.
8. Filter all of the non-gadget files for viruses, then reload the information.
9. Reconnect the server with the community.
10. Do a scan for network port vulnerabilities.
11. look at various the wholly loaded server.
12. replace the documentation and archive the new vital backups.
13. Put the server returned in production.
McClure, Stuart; Scambray, Joel; and Kurtz, George (2001). Hacking exposed: community safety secrets and techniques and solutions, third ed. new york: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Russel, Charlie and Crawford, Sharon (2000). Microsoft windows 2000 Server Administrator's associate. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Press.
Stanek, William R. (2002). Microsoft home windows 2000 Administrator's Pocket advisor, 2nd ed. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Press.
Kirby Cheng is head of library counsel technology at Franklin D. Schurz Library at Indiana school South Bend. He holds an M.L.I.S. from the institution of TexasAustin. he is additionally a Microsoft licensed equipment Administrator (MCSA). His e-mail is email@example.com.