IBM C2180-277 : IBM Websphere Massege Broker V8.0 System Administration Exam
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through James Pethokoukis and Charles Pappas
at the 1964 World’s fair in long island, more than 50 million friends got here to explore pavilions of area Age optimism. regularly occurring Motors’ Futurama trip gave a 15-minute tour of the near future, comprehensive with underwater motels and a Jetsonian metropolis of the next day. Techno-optimism became attribute of other World’s fairs within the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. but what came about to the world’s fairs and the vision of the future they offered? To answer that question, I’ve introduced on Charles Pappas.
Charles is a senior writer at Exhibitor journal, the place he covers alternate indicates and World’s fairs, and the creator of Flying cars, Zombie canine, and robotic Overlords: How World’s gala's and exchange Expos modified the area.
What follows is a flippantly edited transcript of their conversation. that you may obtain the episode right here, and don’t forget to subscribe to my podcast on iTunes or Stitcher. tell your chums, leave a overview.
Pethokoukis: If I Google “World’s reasonable” there should be a little question box that pops up. And the primary question that receives requested is, “Are there still World’s fairs?”
Pappas: well, beside the question you’ll probably see an image of your grandmother, because most individuals sort of expect that here's whatever thing historic individuals used to do. however loads of the problem is that the entry of World’s gala's has moved from the united states and London and Paris over to what was, in case you will, the “Third World” — to Shanghai, to Kazakhstan, and now to Dubai. It’s really an pastime in gentle vigour for those international locations and the entire individuals who demonstrate there, but ever in view that the debacle of the area’s fair in 1984 in New Orleans, they have overpassed them. And they sort of assume that no person does them anymore. And if they did, what often is the point?
I believe to the extent that perhaps younger individuals are aware of World’s gala's, it’s probably as a result of they’re enthusiasts of The Simpsons sketch. There’s a famous episode which makes enjoyable of the ’82 Knoxville World’s fair, showing it as a ghost town and making a huge shaggy dog story of it. after which you outlined the ’eighty four New Orleans World’s reasonable. So were these the remaining massive World’s festivals in the u.s.?
these were the ultimate gasp. ’82 in Knoxville, you’re appropriate, changed into immortalized with the aid of the Simpsons. And it is an exquisite episode, but a little unfair in the way it’s posited, because for one component, they added touch displays there — they have been called AccuTouch — and that was the us’s and the area’s first glimpse of what computing would deliver you. New Orleans, a pair years later, had the doubtful difference of going broke earlier than the fair ended. And that basically variety of crystallized the concept that festivals just can’t be run anymore, that there’s no appeal to them, that there’s nothing new they could reveal the way they used to. but as we’ve seen notwithstanding, in the final few years, that’s been became upside down, peculiarly by means of Shanghai and now Dubai, the place in a true way they’re bringing the future to the realm.
I want to focus on why the united states gave the impression to, in a substantial manner, get out of the world’s reasonable company, and why it’s coming returned. well, let’s simply take a step again: How did they begin? There have always been markets and exhibitions displaying their wares. but when did what we'd feel of as a latest World’s fair start?
The contemporary one started . . . well, let’s blame it on the French. because in 1851, the first precise World’s fair, “The terrific Exhibition of the Works of business of All nations,” took area in London. however the reason it came about was in 1844, seven years before, there was a Paris industrial fair the place they have been displaying the works of the nation of France. So two British people, Matthew Wyatt and Henry Cole, bought the conception that Britain may try this and Britain could launch itself on the world’s stage even more, but it surely would open itself up to competition. so they created an unlimited constitution called the Crystal Palace, which became 1,851 ft lengthy, 408 toes vast, and 9 studies tall. They invited 14,000 exhibitors, 6,500 of which have been from other nations. It created the contemporary idea of the realm’s reasonable, not just as a place to reveal products, but as a spot to existing the long run and, not coincidentally, to recreation smooth power nation-building. And ever on account that then, it’s segued into Paris, into Vienna, into the us. And now, as I’ve mentioned earlier than, it’s taking place in other materials of the area that wish to launch themselves on the realm’s stage and to set up themselves through this exhibition of energy and concepts, and to talk with the world what they’re all about.
i might imagine with the Crystal Palace exhibition, in case you have been just a farmer, a rural grownup in England, you should have in fact felt like you have been taking a big step into the long run at that point.
well, in case you analyze constructions, as an instance, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, you’re seeing whatever that’s relatively extravagant and type of magnificent. So imagine, as you simply observed, that grownup in 1851 who may additionally under no circumstances have traveled more than a number of miles outside of their birthplace, who’s seeing a palace of glass and steel rods in contrast to anything ever carried out before — because the architect Joseph Paxton designed it biomorphically, it's, in response to nature. So he took an Amazonian water Lily — named, of direction, in honor of Queen Victoria — and then designed a building round that.
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so you’re walking up to a pitcher palace, it’s so tall and so massive that an city legend springs up automatically about it, that they needed to bring in an army of hawks to take out all the sparrows that have been congregating internal and making a choice on up the meals bits. Now it’s not proper, nevertheless it should had been. but the real reality right here is that’s the way it impressed itself on the cognizance of britain — that there turned into this extravagant, pretty much science-fiction thought of what structure could be, of what Britain could be at that time. And for this reason, it drew the area’s consideration. So roughly six million americans got here, in a time when the population of England itself was about 10 million. So it gives you an idea of how many americans noticed it. after which believe what that does: That’s a congregation of americans, a attention of the populace that can create the tipping aspect for ideas, for ideologies, and unfold all over the world (faster now than then, however quick having said that).
What I locate so unique is that you simply had this exhibition during the economic Revolution, maybe even the 2nd Industrial Revolution, that changed into basically beginning to speed up, that was moving past simply more suitable weaving technology. And this turned into form of sending a message: i would consider that this revolution goes to be wild; it’s going to create something dazzling. for most of humanity, sooner or later became form of like the subsequent, but if you go to the exhibition, you can feel, “Wow, day after today might also now not be like these days, it may be very, very distinctive.”
You hit on a key factor here: the thought that everyone could have the benefit of this as a result of industrialization, the potential to supply lots of products very speedy and ship them in every single place the world. So on the next World’s reasonable, 1855 in Paris, nearly every thing you may see had a cost tag on it, which means you may go up and just purchase it. and the way marvelous would that be in an period when so many things have been bespoke, when so many things relied on craftspeople to make them individually — which has a beauty of its personal, without doubt, but there’s also a splendor in hundreds of thousands being able to join in and enjoy products that uplift their lives and make their labor a bit less complicated. So then along with that, you delivery getting ideas introduced as well as products. in fact, they all started to launch the idea of kindergarten and of purchasing on credit score at the World’s reasonable in 1855. You birth getting this kind of mass consumption of items and ideas that people can now use to make their lives superior.
And that, once again, type of acts as a fuel to basically spur even more international locations to are looking to do these expos, to reveal, “Yeah, they can join in; we’re the equal.” And they can variety of snort at their naïveté, if you will, nonetheless it’s better to compete on that stage than to make use of weapons to do it. And in that sense, Europe was increasing, Europe changed into becoming — no longer without pains, obviously. but this allowed overseas competition to take location on a peaceable stage. And that in reality changed into anything, chiefly if you look at Europe’s historical past.
When did the USA get involved and get interested in World’s fairs?
actually, they did one in 1853, about two years after. They copied the Crystal Palace and even referred to as it “The Crystal Palace.” after which they went to city with it. I wouldn’t name it a failure, nonetheless it wasn’t rather as extravagant because the 1851 palace. but it did have some thing form of captivating. At one element P.T. Barnum produced part of it, which again, can tell you a little bit about it. but they additionally added the protection elevator, some thing I locate really fascinating. Now imagine, here's 1853. So this man, Elisha Otis, hoists himself on a security elevator, standing on accurate of it, above the crowd. There’s a rope maintaining it. Now we’ve had elevators for hundreds of years, especially due to the fact at least the Roman Colosseum, but they have got a bent to fall. even if it’s a sequence or a rope, they have got a bent to spoil. people fall, they’re injured, and that they die.
So above hundreds and tons of of spectators, Otis cuts the rope. people gasp, individuals cry out as a result of this is like running out of a window but no longer falling — but his security latch held. And in that second he solidified his enterprise. Now trust the vigour of this a hundred and seventy years later. i know there’s loads of different elevator makers on earth, but i will simplest feel of Otis’s name. i know there are others, however i will be able to’t think of them. Otis, though, i know. and that they’re international these days. and then later on, they brought the escalator at the 1900 exposition in Paris. So it’s an ability to alternate the world, to influence lives and to, in case you will, in a greater businesslike feel set brands up for a long time-, even centuries-lengthy domination. And that’s part of the power of expos.
What was the primary large World’s reasonable that became a tremendous adventure? Would it be the 1893 one in Chicago? Or was there an previous one? And via that I suggest, one the place individuals from all over the place traveled to it, now not just in the region — whatever that individuals around the country are aware of and that might be the big issue they try this year?
i'd say 1889 in Paris. since you have Thomas Edison introducing the phonograph. you have got the Eiffel Tower being built. And now we’re starting the very barest beginnings of electrifying the realm. So at one point you've got this new supply of energy coming to the foreground. There’s a wonderful painting by Charles Curran known as “evening Illuminations at the Paris Exposition.” they'd coated the Eiffel Tower with 5,000 light bulbs. And at nighttime they'd set it up, and it could just glow in the dead of night. And there’s a picture in this painting of a lady climbing on someone’s shoulders, just to get a glance at it, just to gawk at it. think about what that could’ve been like in an international which to that point had in reality been lit by using hearth. This become new. This became revolutionizing the realm. Then on suitable of that, you've got what turned into a monstrosity, the Eiffel Tower, which people denigrated as a tragic stove pipe.
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The Paris intelligentsia absolutely hated it — 300 of them wrote a letter condemning it. The creator man de Maupassant really used to eat his lunch underneath the tower as a result of, he noted, “That method I don’t ever have to look at it once I’m looking out at Paris.” They hated it. And now, of direction, what? everyone loves it. The Eiffel tower is now the most advantageous monument manufacturer on the planet. It’s estimated to have a price round $500 billion. That’s a thousand million with a B. here's what the fair creates: this mass meeting of minds that can sometimes have an impact that ripples down via centuries. So at the identical fair, when Edison added the phonograph, he put 50 of them out and he very accurately had individuals list issues like the French countrywide Anthem. And so the French might go up and listen to this. And he recorded the voices of famous opera singers, people that others could understand by name, but they might never absolutely have heard them as a result of recorded track doesn’t exist.
think about what that would be like to hear a disembodied voice, anything that not ever existed before. So, incidentally, he also went out and recorded the voice of the German armed forces strategist, Helmuth von Moltke, the only adult born in the 18th century whose voice has truly been recorded. It become magnificent. It turned into the future being dropped at you. It become the wonders of science sort of overriding the fears of superstition. And in that experience, I feel they introduced us science, they introduced us technology, they brought us the future.
speakme of introducing applied sciences, why don’t you in short inform us the story of the incubator? That one is really interesting.
it is. it is an atypical one, too. at that time, 1904, the newborn mortality fee in the united states became roughly 165 births per a thousand. it's big. That in reality is more than certain Third World international locations today, which gives you a concept of how dire a situation it became.
Now, incubators had been around for a number of years, however became a brand new know-how. people don’t trust it. How do you make them believe it? You discover a method to exhibit to many at a time that it’s benevolent. So at the fair, they took a room and put clinical personnel in there and a row of incubators. after which they went to orphanages and that they received preemie infants from orphanages and positioned them into incubators. Now, surely, that would be a little touchy to do today. however the point is that this: The 20 million individuals who attended the reasonable saw this and they saw that it turned into a effective, benevolent expertise. And basically overnight public opinion alterations. once again, a tipping factor of tens of millions being able to see whatever thing at one time and then the ripple impact of them spreading the information afterwards.
To the extent that individuals nowadays are privy to the history of World’s gala's, they could understand, primarily in the event that they’re from Chicago, of the 1893 World’s reasonable, and maybe the 1939 World’s fair in long island metropolis, which turned into probably probably the most final massive foreign events before World conflict II. And in case you had been going to put in writing a history of the 20th century, you’d likely mention that World’s fair.
The 20th century for the usa kind of starts with that World’s fair. They used it for a couple of purposes. one in every of which being that Roosevelt used it to extend the first rate Neighbor coverage with South the us. It turned into somewhat of a launching pad for that, or rather to extend its impact. but I think essentially the most critical a part of that reasonable changed into Futurama. well-known Motors created the world’s biggest diorama: 36,000 square ft. Now imagine they’ve constructed two million timber of 18 distinctive species; 50,000 miniature, scorching Wheels-sized vehicles, 10,000 of which might work; thousands of skyscrapers. after which you rode around it, over it, 552 americans at a time, on a carousel that took about 17 and a half to 18 minutes to comprehensive the circuit. And what you noticed turned into a moving city — not the agricultural the us that had been overwhelmed down with the aid of the grime Bowl and by using the melancholy, however a gleaming metropolis where many of the vehicles might be semi-automatic.
And here is the realm you were going to have by 1960, it stated, and that they pretty much hit that expectation. You got here out of there with techno-optimism. You concept, “expertise can help meet the longer term. it may convey us into the long run.” And for that by myself, I consider it become a real triumph of the spirit of planning. And basically, the designer of that, Norman Bel Geddes, Roosevelt called him to Washington to suggest on a federal motorway act that was passed in 1944. It had giant have an effect on on legislation itself, which I feel is an additional impressive effect of World’s festivals: what they can do to help the area.
And there’s one other aspect I need to make about this, which is kind of refined, but should you noticed this diorama and you noticed this stuff relocating, you noticed the building that could stand in place for construction that would go on far and wide the united states. be aware the depression was marked by means of one thing: silence. development had fallen to virtually zero in many cities. There changed into a silence that hit the united states in those years. Now there’s the implication of all this power, of all this endeavor that the long run, and of course GM, were going to convey us — it become subtle, however it was truly correct and it worked. and i believe they deserve a tip of the hat for being capable of communicate that thought and, if you will, sell that thought to americans.
and then 25 years later, they had Futurama II at a further World’s reasonable in new york city. however in that Futurama, there changed into a more expansive vision of the longer term. It turned into in reality almost extra holistic since it confirmed humanity — likely led via the united states — on the Moon, under the ocean, and cityscapes possibly even inspired through the Jetsons. once again, a global’s fair featuring the longer term as a place you’d probably need to reside.
You’re appropriate. Moon bases, undersea inns (which, incidentally, we've in Dubai), they'd clear the Amazon — smartly, maybe they should still have simply scaled that one returned slightly. however the component is that they very nearly sextupled the measurement of the ny one in ’39 for this one. It was huge, even larger than earlier than. however again, GM, the sponsor for this one as neatly, became selling a future of self sufficient cars. after which also there you had the IBM pavilion, which I think suits in optimism and foresight what would occur with computer systems. so you’d walk into this very strange-looking building that changed into round with the letters “IBM” emblazoned in three dimensions, three,000 instances around the exact of it — as a result of what changed into it speculated to seem like? The typing point during this electric IBM typewriter that turned into a computer for its period.
5-hundred individuals at a time went in, and also you were lifted as excessive as nine studies up. and then this Charles Eames-designed extravaganza starts to take region. Fourteen projectors hitting nine polygon-fashioned monitors talking about how computers will have an effect on your existence. Now, computers are five-ton monstrosities then. probably they have 5 MB of memory (your iPhone would die if it had that little), but it surely indicates every thing from housewives to football coaches showing how they devise what they do — a recipe or a online game plan — using the same logic computers do, so that they’re not frightening anymore. And whereas these things have been in fact gendered, during the stereotypes of the period, it became understandable. i was there. I saw it, and that i remember being wowed by way of it, being simply mesmerized.
and then you’re lowered out after quarter-hour and you exit and also you see a puppet show using Holmes and Watson the use of 20 questions, deductive good judgment, to remedy a case the style a pc would. Then which you can stroll up and write a date out and a laptop would examine it — handwriting attention, pretty cool, relatively science fiction. after which you’d write out a date as an example, and it will give you the headlines for that date from a brand new York instances database. but I left it with one influence. And one impression most effective: that IBM was computers the way Google these days is search — they’re interchangeable. And that set in motion IBM’s upward push at that length, and it’s nonetheless been dominant despite some u.s.a.and downs in the final few a long time. however’s additionally important as a result of no longer most effective have been they selling us on computer systems, fairly the thought of computers, but at that time they had simply come out of a recession within the ‘50s which turned into sometimes noted as the “automation recession.”
So people nevertheless had an apprehension of automation and what it might do to their jobs, notably in case you consider these are not things they now have in their homes yet. They’re issues that these lab guys in white coats attend to like clergymen of some variety of malevolent God, but now they had some thing more advantageous. They had a future the place it changed into going to help us. And argue in case you will on the actuality or accuracy of that, it turned into the capacity of IBM to use exhibiting at this mass experience, because roughly 50 million americans showed, to sell itself in that manner and to convey a sense of the longer term in that vogue.
The manhattan State Pavilion, one of the vital final architectural vestiges of 1964 World’s reasonable is seen at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in the Queens borough of ny.REUTERS/Shannon Stapleton
So what happened? Is it that techno-optimism type of disappeared and maybe they weren’t as receptive to those ideas? Or did the fairs themselves exchange and perhaps they weren’t as positive about the future? Did they nonetheless present that joyous, “Let’s take one enormous leap” sort of angle?
It’s a perfect storm of all of these. And what I mean by way of this is, at the moment, the environmental move changed into taking off during which in lots of situations, expertise rightly perceived to produce extra issues than it solved. So by way of 1974, you have got the primary real ecologically-minded expo in Spokane the place the united states pavilion took a 17,000 square foot space in entrance of it to talk concerning the typical waste that a household of four leaves. GM took the event, not for Futurama, however to demonstrate a hybrid vehicle of the future, the XP-833. so you’re now scaling down. You’re now looking at, “we are in a problematic duration.” It changed into about items, then about progress, and then, in case you will, about panic. So the expos are relocating in a sense to method that course in that way to assert, “We at the moment are in a not easy period and they should clear up it.” Which in a sense can type of gas the thought that know-how is the difficulty and that there’s now not an awful lot fun in seeing it anymore.
additionally, the advent of screens. Now, tv become introduced to the public truly in 1939 in new york, on the way to see things on reveal. With the information superhighway age it’s even easier to peer things on monitor. So expos have received to segue now from anything that may additionally simply be of visual delight, to experimenting with them, to experimenting and demonstrating these similar to Otis did with an elevator. and i accept as true with that the answer to here's to have greater live demonstrations of applied sciences that you just and that i may are trying out for real. and you can’t do this on-line, and it stands a catastrophic chance of failure identical to Otis and his elevator, because if it could crumple, if it could actually fail, then you definately be aware of this demonstration is legit and it’s value its whereas — it’s value you taking a look at it and trying this know-how. That, I feel, is the one hurdle expos are still making an attempt to get over: to stream from simply monitor to in fact demonstrating these definitely cool issues which are available.
You throw all that collectively, plus the financial difficulties of, for example, New Orleans . . . but there I’d even throw in a caveat. Granted, New Orleans went broke before the fair ended. That’s a debacle. That’s fairly dangerous, however right here’s the issue: The areas that they renovated for the reasonable have introduced in roughly $81.7 billion in salary seeing that that reasonable in 1984. That’s no longer bad. So these festivals need to be checked out as, “Do they lose funds immediately?” probably. And what do they do within the long term? because, in spite of everything, Shanghai in 2010 spent as a minimum 50 billion on infrastructure, however at the least two consider tanks estimate that they may additionally get any place from a 5-to-one to 10-to-one return on that funding future. That’s big. That’s worth doing. So it’s not just like the Olympics where you sort of throw a lot of money, then it’s achieved.
A metropolis that plans this well basically finally ends up with a protracted-term advantage as a result of the infrastructure they’ll construct to herald greater business. an extra example, the ’74 Spokane expo: They misplaced about $seven-hundred,000 instantly with the expo, however’s estimated that they brought in $700 million in earnings on account of multiplied tourism and also one of the infrastructure constructing. So these items can not handiest just be cool for the enviornment and enjoyable to attend, they could also construct out their areas. in a similar fashion, Dubai thinks they’ll get at likely a 3-to-one return. They’re spending about $9 billion. They likely will get lower back $27 to $33 billion for what they’ve invested in. That’s no longer a nasty return.
around the late ’90s the U.S. kind of obtained out of the financing part of it. i spotted that there was a chunk in Reuters saying that the USA might get returned into it and permit the govt to delivery spending cash to take part in World’s fairs once more. So is the united states going to get again in that enterprise? And are they going to see, no longer just World’s gala's within the u.s., however ones in other international locations which have very magnificent American displays? some of their displays devoid of government funding have not been too magnificent, if I remember that accurately.
smartly you’ve hit on a sensitive aspect with government and reasonable individuals in the US, but you’re right. They obtained out of the enterprise more or much less formally in the year 2000 after admittedly some economic hanky panky, in case you will, at a couple of the expos with US pavilions. So part of the federal government referred to, “No, they don’t need to contend with this anymore.” however under the Trump administration, they begun to get back into it again in a bipartisan manner, which I consider is rather admirable. presently, they do have pavilions, but they tend to be company funded rather than executive funded. so that they are usually heavy on the promoting. and that i’ve been to them considering that Shanghai and a couple of aren’t bad. but again, when you’re relying more on sponsorship and promoting, it’s very complicated to execute a imaginative and prescient.
even though the a technique through which US pavilions just shine better than any one on the earth they herald anyplace from, let’s say 50 to 150 students who talk the language of that host country and that they turn into ambassadors for us, and that they take part in charities and different initiatives to aid out in that country and introduce americans to the united states, through meeting americans on the pavilion. here is tremendously successful and overrides the drawbacks of the pavilion in alternative ways. however I see us in the future, though, getting lower back to this for one rationale: We’re trying again to get one right here for the year 2027. Minneapolis, basically, is making an attempt to get it. And in the event that they do, the theme can be according to fitness. And a part of what they are looking to do, which I suppose would be a very cool theory, is to have loads of technologies you're going to are attempting out, for you to really look at various accessible, which I think might deliver lots of people and, once again, put expos lower back on the map with something you could’t get on Twitter or just observing a program on YouTube. Yeah, it’s cool, and it’s easy. however nothing beats face-to-face advertising and marketing; nothing beats people face-to-face, experiencing something within the flesh.
When could they get a full-scale World’s fair that they might bear in mind the manner they remember one of the ones during the past in big apple?
You’re appropriate. You’re appropriate. that could be a smaller one. The huge ones take region, via design, in every five year period. So in different phrases, 2010, ’15, ’20 . . . And ’25 can be in Osaka. Others haven’t bid yet for the 2030 one. The smaller ones take place between those huge ones. And as an example, they’re restricted to a size of 25 hectares or about 62 acres. The massive ones may also be any dimension. So as an instance, this one in Dubai is ready twice the dimension of the nation of Monaco. The one in Shanghai was about 1,305 acres. They can be large, large grounds where a lot takes place on them, however I wouldn’t sell the smaller ones brief as a result of if they focal point well ample, the thought of experiencing all this stuff may also be set in stone and you may in fact go away it with a lot of the identical adventure.
The UAE pavilion designed through Santiago Calatrava at the Expo 2020 in Dubai.picture by means of Dirk Waem by means of REUTERS.
however for those who get to the large ones, right here’s what happens: Up until about 2010, the code notice on fairs became to “out-Eiffel Eiffel.” somebody all the time desired a plan to do whatever that the Eiffel tower did for Paris in that reasonable. And when you consider that 2010, you recognize what you hear americans say? “We wish to out-Shanghai Shanghai.” and i suspect Dubai goes to get close to or exceed Shanghai. I suggest, suppose about this. The United Arab Emirates pavilion itself is biomorphic, designed according to nature, of a falcon’s outstretched wings designed by means of Calatrava. It’s captivating, however the cool component is the wings stream up and right down to generate electrical energy. and that i believe anything like that is only striking. You’re seeing a lot of truly exciting designs right here that can simply wow you, that just mesmerize you. And, as I say, that’s part of the enjoyable of expos.
My visitor nowadays has been Charles Pappas. Charles, thanks plenty for coming on the podcast.
thank you so tons. This turned into a pleasure.
James Pethokoukis is the Dewitt Wallace Fellow at the American commercial enterprise Institute, where he writes and edits the AEIdeas blog and hosts a weekly podcast, “Political economic system with James Pethokoukis.” Charles Pappas is a senior writer at Exhibitor journal and the author of Flying automobiles, Zombie canines, and robotic Overlords: How World’s festivals and change Expos modified the world.