Apple 9L0-412 : OS X Support Essentials 10.8 Exam
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through: Jon Keegan and Alfred Ng
Life360, a well-liked household security app used by using 33 million people worldwide, has been marketed as a great manner for parents to song their babies’s actions the use of their cellphones. The Markup has learned, although, that the app is selling facts on kids’ and families’ whereabouts to about a dozen facts brokers who've bought records to practically any person who wants to purchase it.
through interviews with two former personnel of the enterprise, together with two individuals who formerly worked at vicinity statistics brokers Cuebiq and X-Mode, The Markup found out that the app acts as a firehose of statistics for a controversial industry that has operated in the shadows with few safeguards to avoid the misuse of this delicate suggestions. the previous personnel spoke with The Markup on the situation that they now not use their names, as they are all nevertheless employed within the information industry. They talked about they agreed to talk because of issues with the area facts trade’s security and privateness and a want to shed more easy on the opaque location records economic climate. All of them described Life360 as some of the biggest sources of statistics for the business.
“We haven't any ability to ascertain or deny the accuracy” of even if Life360 is among the many greatest sources of records for the business, Life360 founder and CEO Chris Hulls referred to in an emailed response to questions from The Markup. “We see facts as an important a part of their company model that permits us to maintain the core Life360 functions free for the majority of their users, together with elements which have stronger driver protection and saved a large number of lives.”
A former X-Mode engineer mentioned the raw location information the company received from Life360 was amongst X-Mode’s most useful choices as a result of the sheer volume and precision of the facts. A former Cuebiq worker joked that the enterprise wouldn’t be able to run its advertising campaigns without Life360’s regular stream of location statistics.
Hulls declined to divulge a full record of Life360’s statistics consumers and declined to verify that Safegraph is among them, citing confidentiality clauses, which he observed are within the majority of its enterprise contracts. records partners are best publicly disclosed when partners request transparency or there’s “a particular purpose to do so,” Hulls noted. He did ascertain that X-Mode buys records from Life360 and that it's one in all “approximately one dozen facts partners.” Hulls delivered that the company can be supportive of legislation that could require public disclosure of such partners.
X-Mode, SafeGraph, and Cuebiq are generic region statistics businesses that supply data and insights gleaned from that information to different industry avid gamers, in addition to purchasers like hedge funds or organizations that deal in targeted promoting.
Cuebiq spokesperson invoice Daddi observed in an e-mail that the company doesn’t promote uncooked area statistics but provides access to an aggregated set of information via its “Workbench” tool to valued clientele together with the centers for ailment control and Prevention. Cuebiq, which receives raw region data from Life360, has publicly disclosed its partnership with the CDC to tune “mobility developments” regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.
“The CDC only exports combination, privateness-secure analytics for analysis functions, which completely anonymizes any person consumer records,” Daddi talked about. “Cuebiq does not sell records to law enforcement businesses or provide uncooked records feeds to executive partners (in contrast to others, corresponding to X-Mode and SafeGraph).”
X-Mode has bought vicinity records to the U.S. branch of protection, and SafeGraph has bought vicinity information to the CDC, in keeping with public data.
X-Mode and SafeGraph didn’t reply to requests for remark.
The Life360 CEO talked about that the business carried out a coverage to prohibit the selling or advertising of Life360’s information to any government businesses for use for a legislations enforcement purpose in 2020, although the enterprise has been selling information due to the fact at the least 2016.
“From a philosophical standpoint, they don't trust it is applicable for govt organizations to try to attain records within the business market as a way to skip an individual’s appropriate to due manner,” Hulls spoke of.
The coverage additionally applies to any organizations that Life360’s valued clientele share records with, he referred to. Hulls referred to the enterprise keeps “an open and ongoing talk” with its purchasers to make sure they conform to the policy, even though he mentioned that it was a problem to monitor companions’ actions.
Life360 discloses within the best print of its privateness coverage that it sells the facts it gleans from app users, however Justin Sherman, a cyber policy fellow at the Duke Tech policy Lab, noted people are likely now not aware about how far their information can go back and forth.
“families likely would now not like the slogan, ‘that you may watch the place your kids are, and so can any individual who buys this suggestions,’ ” Sherman talked about.
Two former Life360 personnel additionally told The Markup that the company, whereas it states it anonymizes the facts it sells, fails to take integral precautions to ensure that region histories can not be traced back to individuals. They mentioned that while the enterprise removed probably the most obtrusive opting for person counsel, it didn't make efforts to “fuzz,” “hash,” aggregate, or cut back the precision of the location records to maintain privateness.
Hulls spoke of that each one of Life360’s contracts restrict its purchasers from re-settling on individual users, together with other privateness and protection protecting practices. He talked about that Life360 follows “business surest practices” for privateness and that best certain valued clientele like Cuebiq acquire uncooked area records. the previous X-Mode engineer noted that the business also got uncooked statistics from Life360. The company depends on its customers to obfuscate that records according to their particular functions, Hulls delivered.
“some of their data companions acquire hashed data and a few don't in line with how the statistics may be used,” the Life360 founder observed.
in the meantime, promoting vicinity records has become more and more primary to the business’s fitness as it’s struggled to obtain profitability. In 2016, the enterprise made $693,000 from promoting records it accrued. In 2020, the enterprise made $sixteen million—basically 20 percent of its income that yr—from promoting region information, plus an further $6 million from its partnership with Arity.
whereas still reporting a lack of $sixteen.3 million remaining year, the enterprise is increasing its enterprise to consist of different “digital safeguard” products, rolling out data breach alerts, credit monitoring, and identification-theft-coverage points. Publicly traded on the Australian Securities trade with plans to go public within the U.S., Life360 has additionally bought agencies that extend its monitoring—and potentially its facts-gathering skill. In 2019, the business purchased ZenScreen, a household monitor-time monitoring app. And in April, it purchased the wearable area gadget enterprise Jiobit, aimed toward monitoring younger little ones, pets, and seniors, for $37 million. Hulls said Life360 has no plans to sell records from Jiobit gadgets or its digital safety services.
On Nov. 22, Life360 also introduced plans to buy Tile, a tracking machine business that helps find misplaced items. Hulls spoke of the business doesn’t have plans to promote records from Tile contraptions.
“I’m sure there are lots of families who do locate very real comfort in an utility like this, and that’s legitimate,” Sherman referred to. “That doesn’t mean that there aren’t ways that different individuals are harmed with this information. It also doesn’t mean that the family couldn’t be harmed with the records in ways that they’re now not privy to, akin to that region data being used to goal advertisements [or] used by using insurance companies to work out the place they’re traveling and raise their costs.”
Hulls mentioned that Life360 doesn’t share users’ inner most assistance with insurers in ways in which might affect coverage charges.
The statistics Pipeline
Life360’s app allows for the person to peer the exact, true-time location of chums or members of the family, including the speed at which they're using and the battery degree on their instruments.
Marketed as a safety app, Life360 is time-honored amongst folks who want to song and supervise their youngsters from afar. The app presents a lot of the performance of Apple’s constructed-in place-sharing elements, however contains emergency protection points reminiscent of an SOS button and car crash detection. The company says these facets have saved lives.
however Life360’s vicinity-primarily based points are additionally sources of records points for a growing to be, multibillion-dollar industry that trades in location statistics gathered from mobile phones. Advertisers, govt corporations, and buyers are inclined to spend hundreds of thousands of bucks for vicinity facts and the insights that can be derived from them.
while toddlers can use the app (with parental consent), Life360’s policy states that the company doesn’t sell information on any clients under 13. The children’s online privateness insurance policy Rule (more advantageous known as “COPPA”) creates restrictions on digital functions used by using children beneath 13, and Life360 has detection strategies like requiring a scan of a parent’s identification for underage clients. Life360 does “reveal” more youthful toddlers’s counsel to 3rd events “as vital to research and become aware of using conduct facts, perform analytics or otherwise ,[sic] aid the aspects and performance of their carrier,” in keeping with its privateness policy, but now not “for marketing or promoting functions.”
marketers use place records to target advertisements to americans close businesses, while investors purchase records to examine popularity according to foot site visitors. government organizations have bought place information to music flow patterns and in a single case to help “particular Operations Forces mission necessities remote places.”
“It sounds like the enterprise’s pointing to a couple of situations the place, certain, they helped somebody, they have been in a position to do whatever decent,” Sherman stated. “but then they are going to now not talk about all the other situations where the buying and promoting of this facts is probably very damaging.”
In July, a excessive-rating Catholic priest resigned after a Catholic information outlet outed him through the use of vicinity data from the gay dating app Grindr linked to his gadget. The facts became received by using an unknown seller, and the report claimed to display that the priest frequented gay bars. There isn't any indication that Life360 became concerned during this incident.
Grindr, like other apps that feed statistics into this trade, is required to ask for region permissions when a person first opens the app.
“We are not aware of any illustration the place their facts has been traced again to people by the use of their data partners,” Hulls talked about. “additionally, their contracts contain language particularly prohibiting any reidentification, and they might aggressively take motion against any breach of this time period.”
In Life360’s case, on account of how the app works, it asks for the broadest area permissions possible for practical functions. Many apps that use vicinity information enable users to furnish access most effective whereas it’s in use. as a result of Life360 is for monitoring whereabouts in true time, the app asks for area records continuously—and doesn't function until that permission is became on.
A disclaimer looks in smaller print at the bottom of the permissions monitor: “Your region facts may well be shared with partners for the purposes of crash detection, analysis, analytics, attribution and tailor-made promoting.” users can disable the sale of their region statistics in the privacy settings, although that atmosphere is not disclosed in or part of the instant.
Life360’s Hulls observed that tens of millions of its users have used this function to choose out of their facts being bought.
for those that have not opted out, their Life360 records may well be shared with the company’s partners inside 20 minutes of being recorded, a former Life360 employee mentioned.
Hulls spoke of this description became “directionally correct,” saying it simplest applied to definite partners and use cases.
“as an instance, some use situations, like highway traffic probing, which powers commute time estimates in car navigation systems and GPS apps, require very clean statistics,” he pointed out.
privateness researchers and app save operators frequently look for records brokers’ code in apps for signals of an app sending statistics off to third events. however Life360 collects its data at once from the app and provides it to information brokers through its personal servers.
Apple’s and Google’s app outlets don't have any way of detecting this transfer of location records to a third celebration. “It makes feel to ship this information without delay from the server aspect from the app vendor so it will possibly by no means be traced or accompanied with the aid of anyone,” noted Wolfie Christl, a researcher who investigates digital tracking.
Hulls said Life360’s components of presenting records through its own servers wasn’t an intentional effort to avoid detection from researchers and app shops.
“this is absolutely unrelated. they have their personal proprietary sensor know-how, which they begun constructing in 2008 well earlier than the emergence of the data trade, and they evade the usage of SDKs that could have a poor battery influence or different interplay with their personal sensor know-how,” he noted.
Hulls pointed out Life360 de-identifies the facts it sells, which could consist of a device’s cellular advertising id, IP handle, and latitude and longitude coordinates accrued through Life360’s app.
Hulls clarified that “de-identification” comprises getting rid of usernames, emails, telephone numbers, and different types of identifiable consumer assistance earlier than the facts is shared with Life360’s consumers. The information offered nonetheless contains a device’s cellular advertising identification and latitude and longitude coordinates.
Even without names or mobilephone numbers, researchers have repeatedlydemonstrated how “anonymized” area statistics can without difficulty be connected to the individuals from whom it got here.
And privateness experts observe that mobile advertising IDs are extra constructive than identifiers like names.
“This code can also be used to track and observe you throughout many existence situations,” Christl mentioned. “As such, it's a more robust identifier than a reputation.”
The area data business operates mostly out of public view and with little oversight or legislation. some of Life360’s companions have faced controversy during the past over how they address statistics and privateness.
begun in 2013 as inebriated Mode, a novelty app that “prevents users from drunk dialing,” X-Mode was reportedly banned from the large app shops after Vice’s Motherboard suggested that the enterprise was selling place records from Muslim prayer apps like Muslim pro to U.S. govt contractors linked to national safety, raising considerations about unconstitutional govt surveillance.
Public statistics demonstrate that X-Mode obtained as a minimum $423,000 from the U.S. Air drive and the defense Intelligence company for vicinity facts between 2019 and 2020. The enterprise additionally bought facts on americans in profiled sets, like people who had been drivers or likely to shop at department stores, in line with Motherboard.
In August, X-Mode was bought through intellectual property intelligence firm Digital Envoy and rebranded as Outlogic.
in line with the backlash over X-Mode’s promoting area facts to protection contractors, its new homeowners pointed out the company would stop selling U.S. area statistics to such companies.
“We can't touch upon the practices of one other enterprise or what that enterprise does with information it receives from other sources,” Hulls stated. “although, Life360 has worked closely with X-Mode to be sure that X-Mode and all of its facts purchasers do not promote facts originating from Life360 to legislation enforcement companies or to any govt company for use for a legislation enforcement goal.”
SafeGraph is among the greatest organisations within the area facts enterprise, and its buyers include challenge capitalist Peter Thiel; Prince Turki Al Faisal Al Saud, former head of Saudi intelligence; and Life360’s chief enterprise officer, Itamar Novick.
The enterprise specializes in data that buddies locations of hobby with uncooked coordinates, adding a layer of desiring to the raw location data that the business ingests. SafeGraph turned into recognized as now not just a consumer of Life360’s facts however additionally an enormous associate in an email from a Life360 executive that was considered through The Markup.
In April, as first mentioned by way of Motherboard, SafeGraph was awarded a $420,000 contract to promote records to the facilities for sickness control described as “facts Gathering and Reporting.” The Washington post also stated that SafeGraph shared billions of telephone area facts with the D.C. department of health through its spinoff company Veraset.
The business openly sells location records on Amazon’s facts market, together with a $240,000 every year subscription to facts on people throughout the U.S. Veraset has boasted of marketing area information for functions together with advertising, real estate, investing, and city planning.
Sen. Ron Wyden has flagged SafeGraph as a “data broking service of problem” to Google, Wyden’s chief communications officer, Keith Chu, talked about in an e mail. The Democrat from Oregon has made distinctive makes an attempt to talk with SafeGraph to study more about how the company obtains, sells, and shares americans’ region statistics, but the business by no means spoke back, Chu noted.
Cuebiq additionally labored with the facilities for disease manage, with a $208,000 contract awarded in June for aggregated vicinity statistics, based on public facts.
The CDC didn’t respond to requests for remark.
right through the starting of the coronavirus pandemic, Cuebiq grew to become a chief source of region data for information outlets trying to file on americans’s movements after cities and states issued live-at-domestic orders. shops together with The manhattan instances and NBC information got location information from Cuebiq for their analyses.
It’s been counseled that location facts brokers like Cuebiq are using the pandemic to Boost their public reputation by using providing themselves as tools for public health in place of as mechanisms for surveillance.
Cuebiq’s Daddi noted the business’s statistics has helped in the aftermath of natural mess ups and public health crises.
defense vs. privacy
Life360 has located itself as “the main digital defense brand for households.” but experts say households who use it don't seem to be always considering their digital protection.
“An app that claims to be a household security carrier promoting accurate location facts to a few different companies, this is a total disaster,” Christl talked about. “it might be a problem if it’s some other app, and it’s even more a problem when it’s an app that claims to be a family safety provider.”
Life360 has faced considerations over privacy during the past. In mid-2020, teenagers, displeased at the privateness invasion of an app that allowed their fogeys to minutely track their actions, took to TikTok to motivate their friends to bomb the app with poor reviews. Over the path of a month, the app received more than a million one-big name studies, driving the normal ranking down from four.6 to 2.7 stars.
Hulls replied by using adding a “bubbles” characteristic that indicates folks a greater vague location of their newborn (but still permits parents to look real locations with an additional step). He additionally recruited and paid young adults to hawk the app on TikTok, resulting in a “viral surge in downloads,” in line with the business.
these teens, besides the fact that children, had been possible not aware that their folks were infrequently the simplest ones privy to facts on their movements.
Samira Madi, an 18-year-ancient student in Texas, begun the usage of Life360 when she was 15. She didn’t have an issue with the enterprise sharing her region information for advertising and advertising applications, which the business simply disclosed.
After gaining knowledge of about who Life360 become promoting data to, and the size it changed into sold at, Madi felt that the enterprise crossed a line.
“I had no thought it will be passed around this fashion,” Madi stated in an email. “This issues me as a result of i might now not need my vicinity information to maybe be offered to americans with unwell intentions.”
this text changed into in the beginning posted on The Markup and became republished beneath the artistic Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives license.