Oracle 1Z0-047 : Oracle Database SQL Expert Exam
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Exam Number : 1Z0-047
Exam Name : Oracle Database SQL Expert
Vendor Name : Oracle
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Format | 1Z0-047 Course Contents | 1Z0-047 Course Outline | 1Z0-047 test
Syllabus | 1Z0-047 test
Exam Title : Oracle Database SQL Expert
Exam ID : 1Z0-047
Exam Product Version : SQL and PL/SQL
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Questions in test
Passing Score : 66%
Format : Multiple Choice
Exam Center : Pearson VUE - Oracle
Recommended Practice : 1Z0-047 Online VCE Practice Test
Restricting and Sorting Data - Limit the rows that are retrieved by a query
- Sort the rows that are retrieved by a query
- Use substitution variables
- Use the SQL row limiting clause
- Create queries using the PIVOT and UNPIVOT clause
- Use pattern matching to recognize patterns across multiple rows in a table
Using Single-Row Functions to Customize Output - Describe various types of functions that are available in SQL
- Use character, number, and date and analytical (PERCENTILE_CONT, STDDEV, LAG, LEAD) functions in SELECT statements
- Use conversion functions
Reporting Aggregated Data Using the Group Functions - Identify the available group functions
- Use group functions
- Group data by using the GROUP BY clause
- Include or exclude grouped rows by using the HAVING clause
Displaying Data from Multiple Tables - Use equijoins and nonequijoins
- Use a self-join
- Use outer joins
- Generate a Cartesian product of all rows from two or more tables
- Use the cross_outer_apply_clause
Using Subqueries to Solve Queries - Use subqueries
- List the types of subqueries
- Use single-row and multiple-row subqueries
-Create a lateral inline view in a query
Using the Set Operators - Explain set operators
- Use a set operator to combine multiple queries into a single query
- Control the order of rows returned
Manipulating Data - Describe the DML statements
- Insert rows into a table
- Update rows in a table
- Delete rows from a table
- Control transactions
Using DDL Statements to Create and Manage Tables - Categorize the main database objects
- Review the table structure
- Describe the data types that are available for columns
- Create tables
- Create constraints for tables
-Describe how schema objects work
- Truncate tables, and recursively truncate child tables
- Use 12c enhancements to the DEFAULT clause, invisible columns, virtual columns and identity columns in table creation/alteration
Creating Other Schema Objects - Create simple and complex views with visible/invisible columns
- Retrieve data from views
- Create, maintain and use sequences
- Create private and public synonyms
Managing Objects with Data Dictionary Views - Query various data dictionary views Controlling User Access - Differentiate system privileges from object privileges
- Grant privileges on tables and on a user
- View privileges in the data dictionary
- Grant roles
- Distinguish between privileges and roles
Managing Schema Objects - Manage constraints
- Create and maintain indexes including invisible indexes and multiple indexes on the same columns
- Create indexes using the CREATE TABLE statement
- Create function-based indexes
- Drop columns and set column UNUSED
- Perform flashback operations
- Create and use external tables
Manipulating Large Data Sets - Manipulate data using subqueries
- Describe the features of multitable INSERTs
- Use multitable inserts
- Unconditional INSERT
- Pivoting INSERT
- Conditional ALL INSERT
- Conditional FIRST INSERT
- Merge rows in a table
- Track the changes to data over a period of time
- Use explicit default values in INSERT and UPDATE statements
Generating Reports by Grouping Related Data - Use the ROLLUP operation to produce subtotal values
- Use the CUBE operation to produce crosstabulation values
- Use the GROUPING function to identify the row values created by ROLLUP or CUBE
- Use GROUPING SETS to produce a single result set
Managing Data in Different Time Zones Use various datetime functions
Retrieving Data Using Subqueries - Use multiple-column subqueries
- Use scalar subqueries
- Use correlated subqueries
- Update and delete rows using correlated subqueries
- Use the EXISTS and NOT EXISTS operators
- Use the WITH clause
Hierarchical Retrieval - Interpret the concept of a hierarchical query
- Create a tree-structured report
- Format hierarchical data
- Exclude branches from the tree structure
Regular Expression Support - Use meta Characters
- Use regular expression functions to search, match and replace
- Use replacing patterns
- Use regular expressions and check constraints
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Oracle Database testing
Backend construction frequently requires writing many strains of code that deal with CRUD, authorization and company logic. All this code must be confirmed, debugged and maintained all over the entire lifetime of the undertaking. This takes loads of time that developers will also be using to increase new features. listed here, you’ll find out how Hasura and PostgreSQL can aid you pace up app building and launch backends without delay with minimal effort.
Hasura is an open-supply GraphQL engine that generates GraphQL and relaxation API endpoints using your database schema. It supports data modeling, precise-time querying, event programming, role-based authorization and moves for running custom business good judgment over GraphQL.
PostgreSQL is a favored and robust open-source, object-oriented relational database that presents commercial enterprise-type points on an identical degree with Oracle Database and Microsoft SQL Server. PostgreSQL is used by using massive foreign corporations corresponding to Netflix, Instagram, Uber and Spotify, according to StackShare.
listed here, we’ll go over the leading points Hasura provides that makes it appropriate for developing and launching scalable backends, for each net and mobile functions. We’ll also look at how to leverage PostgreSQL’s aspects to operate a number of computation and analytical projects the usage of simply SQL to deliver the appropriate data to your frontend with out writing customized code.
Do be aware that Hasura does aid other databases as well, corresponding to Microsoft SQL Server, Amazon Aurora and Google BigQuery. We’ll center of attention on PostgreSQL, on the grounds that it’s free and obtainable for the majority of groups and groups. help for MySQL is coming quickly, in case you’re involved.
in case you’re new to GraphQL, please try their tutorial to be trained more. Let’s beginning with why PostgreSQL may also be an ideal alternative on your mission.
Relational databases have many different benefits over different kinds of databases, in so you might model your facts the usage of strict schemas and desk relationships. The potential to perform JOINs and execute ACID transactions is an incredible requirement for a lot of purposes in most industries. These elements are basic to advertising integrity and consistency of company statistics at any given time.
PostgreSQL additionally has further advantages over other relational databases reminiscent of MySQL, in that:
that you can mannequin statistics the usage of desk inheritance
it has improved concurrency manage for multi-consumer environments (which you can write big quantities of facts more efficiently)
it’s fault tolerant and is much less liable to records corruption
it helps a number exciting statistics types reminiscent of JSON and Spatial, which is positive for finance and research-related applications
PostgreSQL isn’t simply an information storage service. It’s additionally a server able to working custom capabilities and triggers to perform a lot of computation and analytical tasks. working logic on PostgreSQL is greater effective, as it negates the deserve to write custom server code. you could define good judgment in PostgreSQL using:
Views, a stored query that can support simplify complex queries
services & Operators, akin to date formatting, trial matching, arithmetic operations
Extensions, addons that extends PostgreSQL’s capabilities (akin to PostGIS)
Procedural Languages, programming languages for writing person-defined features, kept methods, triggers and increasing the usual SQL (akin to PL/pgSQL)
in the event you implement common sense in PostgreSQL, Hasura is capable of expose them to frontend applications by means of GraphQL queries and mutations. here’s a exact-stage view of a PostgreSQL server, as considered by the use of the pgAdmin interface:
learning to take knowledge of PostgreSQL points can assist you solve complex issues effortlessly devoid of writing server code. listed here are a couple of examples of what which you could do with PostgreSQL:
that you can retrieve a listing of online clients which are currently active the use of a view:
CREATE OR substitute VIEW "public"."online_users" AS
the place (clients.last_seen >= (now() - '00:00:30'::interval));
the use of a PostGIS feature, which you can checklist all stores that are located inside a 1,000 meter radius. See this geolocation tutorial for a detailed clarification:
opt for identification, identify, address, geom
where ST_DWithin(geom, ST_MakePoint(-122.325959,47.625138)::geography, one thousand);
in the subsequent part, we’ll focus on Hasura’s points.
Hasura is an open-source, actual-time GraphQL engine that generates GraphQL and relaxation API endpoints in your database. It comes with a web console that permits you to:
mannequin your database schema
view, insert, update and delete statistics
put in force position-primarily based entry control policies
run GraphQL queries and mutations
create leisure endpoints
run SQL code
define movements and triggers
Hasura doesn’t help consumer authentication, so that you’ll should integrate Hasura and your frontend utility with a issuer reminiscent of:
There’s also no file storage service, you’ll need to combine your app with a 3rd-celebration storage issuer. if you’d choose a greater out-of-the-box built-in journey with Hasura, that you may take a look at NHost, which we’ll focus on later within the deployment section.
within the subsequent section, we’ll analyze how they are able to run Hasura in the neighborhood and in the cloud.
There are a couple of approaches which you could instantly launch and run a Hasura example:
the usage of Docker to run Hasura in your native laptop is the counseled method for establishing a development atmosphere. With this setup, there’s no cost limiting for API requests and there’s no internet connection throttling your event when you interact with Hasura’s web console. Any work you do locally can comfortably be migrated to staging and construction environments. We’ll talk about how here's executed later within the “Migrations and Environments” area.
Assuming you have already got Docker and Docker Compose already installed on your desktop, which you can follow the guidelines provided via this e book to run Hasura for your machine:
curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hasura/graphql-engine/stable/deploy-manifests/docker-compose/docker-compose.yaml -o docker-compose.yml
docker-compose up -d
you could confirm your Hasura and PostgreSQL container cases are working by using executing the command docker ps. you should be capable of access your local Hasura illustration by the use of your browser at http://localhost:8080/console. To complete the setup, you’ll deserve to connect to the PostgreSQL database, which is running as a container alongside Hasura’s.
With the database connected, you’ll be in a position to use the web console to create tables, outline relationships and perform CRUD operations to your statistics. Do note that your records is public when the usage of the default Docker setup. that you would be able to relaxed it via conveniently uncommenting the road that begins with HASURA_GRAPHQL_ADMIN_SECRET on your docker-compose.yml file and restarting your Hasura container.
A a good deal more straightforward means of getting started is by the use of Hasura Cloud. here is a re-engineered edition of the open-supply Hasura designed for scalability, availability, securityand global distribution.
Hasura Cloud comes with a number of new facets not purchasable in the open-source version, which include:
Monitoring dashboard for error, connections, subscriptions, gradual queries and different operations
GraphQL caching for more desirable server and client records fetching performance
expense limiting for preventing malicious clients and DDoS assaults from compromising your API
Regression trying out for operating check suites similar to checking adjustments in your dev illustration towards your creation instance
To get started with Hasura Cloud, you’ll should register for a free account. Do note the free account has a price limit of 60 requests per minute. After creating an account, you’ll should:
Create a undertaking (a Hasura example)
connect with a PostgreSQL database
For convenience, Hasura Cloud gives a one-click setting up and connection to a free Heroku Cloud database example. you can also connect to any other PostgreSQL database that’s accessible over the information superhighway. there are lots of PostgreSQL suppliers that you could use. These include cloud functions such as:
which you could comply with this e book if you would like extra readability with the steps above. by using default, Hasura Cloud restricts information access from the general public the use of the admin secret key. We’ll talk about more about this in the upcoming sections.
in this part, I’ll offer you a high-stage overview of the facets that Hasura offers for constructing a custom backend with out writing code.
Hasura comes with a visual dressmaker for modeling your information layer. This permits you to:
define relationships (one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many)
operate CRUD operations
run any SQL statement
put into effect statistics validation the usage of PostgreSQL’s DDL constraints
When it involves columns, Hasura helps a rich set of records types which include:
integers, numerics and floats
serials and UUID
characters and textual content
date and time
geometric — similar to line, box, path, polygon and circle
which you can additionally add custom forms the usage of the CREATE classification SQL command. subsequent, we’ll examine how information is approved in Hasura.
entry handle in Hasura is function based mostly. through default, there’s a task called admin that has full CRUD access to your records. To restrict access to other clients, you’ll should create further roles comparable to person, public or accountant.
For every function you create, you should define an access coverage for right here actions:
There are three types of guidelines that you would be able to define:
Full access, without a limit
Partial access, with conditionally—based restrictions
right here instance demonstrates a choose authorization coverage for the consumer position. The guidelines described below are set to be sure that a consumer can best query either their personal information or these marked as public:
After designing your schema and defining permissions, that you can check your GraphQL queries appropriate within Hasura’s API dashboard. each desk, view and relationship that you’ve defined can also be queried, offered monitoring was enabled.
The styles of queries you could execute include:
primary queries: opt for queries that return one or more objects.
Nested queries: join queries that return objects in a nested structure based on international key relationships.
Aggregation queries: choose queries the place an arithmetic operation such as sum or ordinary has been carried out on the outcomes. it might even be applied to nested objects.
Filter/Search queries: the place queries that filter information using evaluation operators on one or more fields. they can also be used to operate searches the use of trial or fuzzy matching.
GraphQL question outcomes will also be sorted, grouped and paginated. Cursor-based mostly pagination is additionally supported. in fact, any SQL statement that can be run on PostgreSQL can also be exposed by means of a GraphQL query. in the subsequent area, we’ll look at mutations.
GraphQL mutations are statements which are used to adjust statistics. below are the styles of mutations which you could perform:
Insert: create one or more rows of statistics:
title: "Article 1"
content: "pattern article content material"
Upsert: create, update on battle. within the instance beneath, the column price has a different constraint:
objects: price: "Java"
on_conflict: constraint: tags_value_key, update_columns: value
update: update one or greater rows of statistics. There are also special operators for working with int and jsonb data types. The illustration below updates all articles with a score that's less than or equal to 2. The mutation will return the variety of affected rows and additionally checklist these rows as an array of objects:
the place: ranking: _lte: 2
_set: rating: 1, is_published: false
Delete: delete one or more rows of facts. right here illustration deletes a piece of writing via fundamental key:
Transaction: operate varied mutations in one mutation block. If one among them fails, all previously achieved mutations within that block will be rolled back. here illustration first deletes all articles belonging to an writer. in the 2nd mutation, the writer’s identify is up-to-date:
delete_article(where: author_id: _eq: 6 )
update_author(the place: identification: _eq: 6 , _set: identify: "Cory" )
Hasura’s subscriptions are are living queries that execute over a WebSocket protocol. here is a protocol used for fetching true-time information from a database. Any GraphQL query can be became right into a subscription by without problems replacing the key phrase question with subscription. with the aid of default, such queries run an SQL observation every one 2nd. here is a configurable atmosphere that can be tuned to provide a suitable steadiness between database load and latency. If there’s a transformation in the underlying information, the new value is pushed to the client.
right here example demonstrates a GraphQL subscription that tracks the location of a automobile:
subscription getLocation($vehicleId: Int!)
automobile(where: identification: _eq: $vehicleId )
locations(order_by: timestamp: desc , restrict: 1)
different use instances of using subscriptions consist of:
meals beginning monitoring
often when constructing a latest software, you’ll need to combine with third-celebration APIs that:
deliver information that’s no longer for your database — such as sports reside ratings, or stock rate
deliver company good judgment — akin to charge processing, or reserving flights
These third-birthday party APIs are usually accessed without delay from customer apps. With Hasura, which you could merge these APIs together with your database to create a unified GraphQL API. This creates new alternatives where that you may put in force authorization and define remote relationships between your tables/view and the far flung API. which you could also create actions that perform a certain assignment in response to this type of relationship.
Having a unified GraphQL API makes it less difficult for frontend builders to construct the app. in the subsequent area, we’ll study what Hasura movements are.
customized enterprise common sense in Hasura is handled externally on microservices or serverless services by way of webhooks. This capacity which you could write customized common sense the usage of any language your decide on, corresponding to Node.js, Python, Go or Ruby on Rails. An motion in Hasura is without difficulty a custom GraphQL question or mutation that maps to a webhook where the input and output interfaces are defined.
An motion definition is made up of:
class: query or mutation
customized types for inputs and outputs
Let’s study a simple “hey, World!” example. First, they outline an motion question as follows:
hey(name: String!): HelloResponse
The action above defines a characteristic called hi there that accepts a string variable known as identify as input. The characteristic returns a HelloResponse object, which is a custom class that’s described as follows:
With the interface described, all that’s left is the implementing the webhook provider and a URL that’s accessible to your Hasura instance. here’s an implementation written for categorical.js that has been created with the assist of Hasura’s CodeGen assistant:
app.submit("/howdy", async (req, res) =>
const name = req.body.enter;
message: `hiya, $identify!`,
In Hasura, you could construct apps the use of a application structure known as experience-pushed programming. this is a design pattern that decouples advanced state management from a monolithic backend and defers it to particular person microservices or serverless features that execute enterprise common sense. This allows for for the constructing of apps that are enormously powerful and scalable.
With adventure programming, you could with ease tackle many use circumstances, such as:
In PostgreSQL, that you can create triggers that executes SQL statements or kept tactics when an experience similar to INSERT, replace or DELETE occurs. A set off is associated with a table or view and may fire before or after an adventure.
In Hasura, experience triggers are in a similar way described and are used for invoking internet hooks when an adventure is fired. a web hook in this context is fairly similar to those they just discussed in the “actions” section. experience triggers can also be invoked manually by way of the console or API.
below is an illustration of an adventure trigger definition in YAML structure:
- name: author_trigger
An event set off may also be described with headers (for authentication functions) and always consists of a payload that’s sent to the webhook provider for statistics processing. The handiest response anticipated is 200 repute. The genuine effects, if obligatory, are posted again via a special route — equivalent to posting a GraphQL mutation, or sending an electronic mail notification, and the like.
Frontend apps can receive the effects by way of querying via GraphQL subscription. This type of architecture makes it handy to build non-blocking interactive true-time apps which have fantastic person adventure. The codebase is additionally less demanding to retain, verify and scale for builders.
Scheduled Triggers are time-based activities that execute custom enterprise common sense via webhooks. There are two types so you might define:
CRON triggers : used for periodic routine at an everyday interval
One-off scheduled routine: used for one-off executions
Scheduled triggers will also be created both by way of the internet console or by the use of the metadata API. The screenshot under indicates the web console illustration.
The metadata API makes it possible for creation of scheduled events the use of software code. The illustration under indicates how you would constitution the creation of a one-time experience the usage of the API:
"webhook": "https://my-astonishing-serverless-fn.com/send-electronic mail",
"schedule_at": "2022-07-20T12:forty five:00Z",
Hasura offers a few fault-tolerance mechanisms that be sure scheduled triggers run correctly. for example, let’s say an experience that was scheduled for two:00pm wasn’t processed as a result of Hasura became down at 1:59pm. When Hasura is introduced back online, it'll rehydrate movements and re-run neglected scheduled triggers in response to a customizable tolerance configuration. The default setting is six hours.
Hasura additionally gives a versatile retry configuration in case of HTTP screw ups. which you could configure the number of retries and the timeout between every retry. every set off invocation is logged — which which you could entry later for inspection.
Use cases for scheduled triggers encompass:
producing end-of-day reviews
deleting inactive clients who haven’t established their electronic mail tackle inside the final 90 days
Migrations and Environments
The top-quality development workflow for any application project is to installation assorted environments for building, staging and creation. This workflow simplifies testing and ensures builders don’t by accident delete or corrupt construction records when deploying new types of their utility.
with a purpose to switch the state of a building ambiance to staging and construction, migration info are required. With Hasura, you’ll want:
database/SQL migration files
Hasura metadata is made up of a image of configuration files that continues song of:
far flung schema
You’ll need to installation Hasura CLI to be capable of create and apply these migration information to a distinct Hasura example. These migration data can be versioned and up to date incrementally because the schema changes throughout construction.
growing and making use of SQL migration information is performed the usage of the hasura migrate command, whereas the metadata migration files are handled using hasura metadata command. The CLI command additionally allows you to:
roll again applied migrations
create seed facts migration
reset migration info
squash migration files — it truly is, change small incremental updates with one most important update
Hasura has a special Docker cli-migration photograph that instantly applies migrations when the server starts. This photo also contains the Hasura CLI tool, which can be used to run CI/CD scripts on your workflow.
The easiest way to set up Hasura for creation is by using Hasura Cloud. this is the counseled choice, when you consider that you get commercial enterprise points not attainable on the open-source version. fortunately, Hasura doesn’t lock you in to their platform, not like most backend-as-a-carrier providers (BaaS). There are One-click on install carrier providers so that you can take advantage of in structures similar to:
which you could additionally install Hasura on any Kubernetes platform comparable to Google Cloud. AWS is also supported, however you ought to move through a few steps to get it working. hosting externally does provide you with freedom and extra pricing options. besides the fact that children, all the above options require you to installation extra services for:
customized company logic
within the next part, we’ll in brief look at find out how to use NHost to further simplify construction of Hasura backend functions.
Deploying with NHost
NHost is an open-supply BaaS company that aims to compete with platforms corresponding to Firebase. Their backend stack consists of:
Hasura GraphQL engine
an authentication carrier
MinIO, an S3 appropriate object storage carrier
Serverless capabilities (presently in beta)
The platform comes with a client library called nhost-js-sdk which is used for frontend authentication and file administration. The storage carrier supports graphic optimization, which saves us the trouble of integrating a different provider for photographs.
on the the time of writing, NHost at present provides a 14-day trial for its carrier. A free tier can be launched quickly. There’s a Docker version called Hasura Backend Plus which that you could install locally for your laptop.
To conclude, Hasura GraphQL Engine and PostgreSQL database is fairly progressive when it comes to how quickly you could build backends for both cell and internet applications, with out writing strains of code. lots of the computation and analytical logic may also be handled by PostgreSQL, while the relaxation of the customized enterprise common sense may also be implemented using microservices or serverless features.
Adopting Hasura capability you’ll be in a position to launch quicker and construct a product that’s totally performant, relaxed, fault tolerant, scalable and easy to maintain. Having no infrastructure hassles will also cut back your operating charges and assist you to focal point on frontend building and the consumer-dealing with a part of your app.
despite the fact Hasura isn’t as characteristic rich as other open-source alternatives equivalent to Parse platform, it helps versioning and atmosphere staging, which is an important requirement for CI/CD building workflows. since it’s open source, you’re included from dangers posed by way of seller lock-ins.