IBM 000-448 : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2 Exam
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Exam Number : 000-448
Exam Name : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
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IBM (ICC) techniques
look at Design
PICO is a single-blinded, randomized managed trial with three months duration. individuals can be randomly assigned to certainly one of two companies: aquatic recreation (AE) and handle neighborhood (CG). figure 1 gives a flowchart of PICO design. Researchers and personnel accountable for information collection will be blinded 4 the group classes. The examine protocol became permitted by means of the moral Committee of the faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical college of Lisbon. All individuals might be recommended about the methods and capabilities risks and an advised consent could be acquired from them.
pattern. seeing that the calculation of the demo measurement, the experiences of Messier (2009) and Wang (2007) had been used as a reference, because they'd a demo with an identical characteristics and studied an identical consequences. both confirmed that a discount of symptoms in sufferers with OA of the knee ended in a significant development (α < 0.05) of the basic outcomes measure of self-pronounced genuine
feature. To find the same growth of self-suggested physical function of approximately 25% between the baseline and final measurements in sufferers with KOA, the minimal variety of sufferers which are required is 20 for the leading consequences. The latter number is in response to an influence (1-B) of 0.eighty and a magnitude degree of 5% (two-sided). When a dropout fee of 20% is taken into account, as a minimum 25 individuals should be panic at look at onset.
Inclusion criteria. The analyze demo will include 56 group-dwelling adults from the Lisbon enviornment with: (1) age between forty and sixty five years; (2) 28.0 ≤ BMI ≤ forty five kg/m2; (three) unilateral or bilateral KOA clinically determined through knee pain and grade I-III radiographic tibiofemoral OA or tibiofemoral plus patellofemoral OA (4) a sedentary subculture, defined as no longer taking part in a program that contains greater than 30 minutes per week of formal pastime, in the 6 months main as much as the study; (5) being independently mobile; and (6) literate.
Exclusion standards. The exclusion criteria are: subjects with dermis illnesses, with unstable clinical situations and or who have passed through hip or knee alternative, or knee surgical procedure inside the 6 months in advance of the study; and members who had any class of knee injections within the past three months.
Trial behavior. Recruitment: The recruitment and option manner could be performed in line with the aforesaid eligibility criteria. To stay away from comfort sampling diverse files will be created for advertising and publicizing the PICO venture. Social networks, television interviews, newspapers and the collaboration of entities/organizations might be the main channels for PICO announcements.
All eligible people who contact the analyze secretariat will go during the equal preference process, namely: a cellphone based pre–preference stage adopted by means of a face to face interview and completion of the screening questionnaire in order to provide advice about demographics and signs, signals and chance factors for KOA prevalence. Volunteers who, after completing the questionnaire, fulfill the ACR standards for clinical diagnosis will acquire a request for an x-ray examination. The tests should be stated a rheumatologist who will make the closing analysis in line with ACR radiological criteria. within the case of affirmation of the KOA diagnosis, the subject can be invited to a further interview the intention of which is exact explanation of the undertaking, obtaining his/her recommended consent and familiarization with both the locale and the equipment which will likely be used in the tests.
Aquatic exercise (AE). The aquatic application is in line with the instructions of OARSI and EULAR for KOA management,[28,29] on the Aquatic recreation association guidelines (AEA), on the Arthritis foundation Aquatics application instructor's guide, on the ACSM's guidelines for recreation Prescription and on analysis of the protocols of old reviews.[36,38,39,44,77,78]
The innovations within the PICO suggestion to supply a top quality aquatic recreation intervention are structured in keeping with AEA guidelines and include overload assessment and managements, have an effect on level handle (level 1, 2 or three), endeavor cadence handle and ample track according to undertaking dreams. furthermore using distinctive and pre-described cool-down periods each week, a strong motivational component and pain evaluation should make the difference during this protocol. educational themes shall also be addressed during the courses. One tutorial theme per week will likely be strengthened, reminiscent of: What did you have for breakfast? Let's try, throughout this week, to increase the nice of their breakfast. subsequent class i will be able to assess what you ate; remember that remember to investigate yourself about knee pain, let's are attempting to find out how to live with it.
an additional factor that may be regarded is the degree of aquatic capacity of each participant. workouts like underwater breathing and flotation will be used in small doses to cut back concern of water and to be sure that participants are relaxed relocating across the pool.
The aquatic software will be prepared into 24 classes distributed over 12 consecutive weeks, with a frequency of twice a week. The length of each session may be 60 minutes, being that 10 minutes are for affected person reception, blood force manage, pain registry and many others., and the beneficial time internal the water is 45 minutes. The indoor pool works with an air temperature around 27 ± 1°C and water temperature is managed at 30.5 ± 0.5°C.
desk 1 describes the aquatic activity category layout for the primary four weeks. workouts are equipped with a view to have a innovative overload a week. Water is the leading instrument to create resistance and handiest in the closing week, in accordance with the stage of progression of the contributors and even if their self-stated ache is controlled, will further gadget be brought to boost the water resistance and due to this fact, the activity overload. The Omni - Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance pastime (OMNI-RES) and for aerobic target zone (0–10 Borg Scale) can be used in accordance instructions for activity depth management.
The activity instructors will use behavioral options: 1) to motivate social contact between individuals; 2) to advertise general contact all through all intervention phases; 3) to define clear behavioral desires and permit remarks on achievements; 4) to aid participants to self-computer screen their pain and pastime depth to comprehensive pastime; 5) to establish very own dedication to the assignment in the course of the exercise leader.
academic software: handle neighborhood (CG). The control neighborhood aren't enrolled in any endeavor application however will participate in the tutorial software "PESO comunitário". This application is according to appropriate medical guidelines and on validated behavior change principles. implemented by using an intervention team with expertise received from latest scientific research in weight manage determinants, this application, as is PICO, is free of can charge for all involved adults who wish to manipulate their weight and health. It has operated when you consider that 2005 with the goal of preventing obesity or decreasing extra weight in addition to one of the chance elements for grownup weight problems, by means of through a metamorphosis to constant suit habits, attitudes and behaviors. PESO lasts 3 months and contains 12 periods of one and a half hour, on a weekly groundwork.
Screening Measurements. The Knee Osteoarthritis Pre-Screening questionnaire (KOPS) changed into validated by using the authors and considered positive for this goal (article in submission technique). KOPS addresses genuine
function, undertaking level, co-morbid diseases, KOA possibility components and symptoms, height and weight (to check BMI) in addition to caregiver status. The demographic facts which are accumulated encompass records on occupation, profits, and educational stage. The medical kind is used to check co-morbidities and to investigate any self-said tips on medicines. The typical KOPS rating has desirable to respectable reliability with a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.747 and adequate inner consistency with an Intraclass Coefficient (ICC) for ordinary measures of 0.646. The results for check-retest of 1-week interval for every part ranged from 0.895–0.992 for ICC and from 0.894 to 0.979 for Cronbach's Alpha.
Osteoarthritis analysis and Severity Classification
To ascertain OA and classify its severity the same X-ray protocol will be used for all subjects. Bilateral, anterior-posterior, weight-bearing knee radiographs might be used to determine OA within the tibiofemoral joint, and first light views to establish OA within the patellofemoral compartment. Severity of tibiofemoral OA may be measured the usage of the k-L grading scale.
results, Measures and gadgets. All assessments should be carried out by all subjects at both baseline and 3 month later, on the end of the pastime intervention, using the identical protocols and evaluated by means of the PICO team member(s). assessments list will also be checked in the table 2. The tests and questionnaires should be distributed over two nonconsecutive days, taking the fatigue degrees of the area and the need to prevent overload into consideration. hence the knee power look at various and the Six Minute jogging test might be carried out on different days.
The main consequences may be KOA symptoms (pain and stiffness) and excellent of existence, physical feature (cardio ability, electricity, and suppleness) and gait (kinetics and kinematics). The secondary effects are body composition, morphology, physical activity degree, and inflammatory biomarkers. all the way through the study, all participants may be allowed to preserve their commonplace treatment, together with analgesics and NSAIDs. a detailed listing of medicine will be carried out at baseline and 3 month post-intervention testing.
Knee OA indicators and fitness fine of existence
quick ache inventory (BPI) – brief version. A consensus panel, the Initiative on strategies, size, and pain assessment in scientific Trials (IMMPACT) advised the inclusion of the brief version of short pain inventory (BPI) in all trials that intend to determine continual ache.  it is a common, official, legitimate instrument that assesses pain historical past, area, intensity and its interference with every day activities in individuals with osteoarthritis.  The Portuguese version became validated and recent studies have offered effective guide for its reliability and validity. [83,84]Numerical ranking Scale (NRS). The subjects shall learn to self-examine their knee depth pain by means of the 0–10 point NRS. The NRS may still be used to manage ache depth earlier than and after the aquatic recreation type and on every occasion is necessary.Knee harm and Osteoarthritis effect ranking (KOOS). This questionnaire contains 5 dimensions to measure KOA particular health-linked high-quality of lifestyles (QOL), knee ache (pain), other sickness-certain signs (different indicators), activities of every day residing (ADL), recreation/exercise characteristic (recreation/Rec). A score in each and every of the 5 dimensions is calculated as the sum of the gadgets blanketed and then converted in keeping with a 0–one hundred scale, with 0 representing severe knee problems and 100 representing no knee complications. The KOOS is validated for patients with knee injury or with knee OA and is a legit and responsive self-administered instrument for short-termfollow-up.  The Portuguese validation has acceptable reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients between 0.seventy seven and 0.ninety five, and ICC starting from 0.eighty two to 0.ninety four for the KOOS subscales. medical outcomes study (MOS) short-form fitness Survey (SF-12v2). SF-12 v2 includes a subset of 12 gadgets to determine fitness fame, prepared into two domains: physical (actual element abstract, PCS) and Psychological (intellectual part summary, MCS) that make up the long-established SF-36.  It has been shown that the SF-12 correlates totally with SF-36 in both obese and non-obese sufferers.  The Portuguese edition of SF-12 has sufficient reliability and validity. [89,90]Beck melancholy inventory (BDI-II). This instrument, developed by way of Beck and colleagues  has 21 gadgets to price the severity of depression in response to the medical definition. It is without doubt one of the most widespread and favourite contraptions for assessing the severity of depressive symptomatology. The Portuguese edition  indicates a superb inside consistency, a factor structure very similar to the original version, [91,93] and an sufficient convergent validity.
Six Minutes walking look at various (6MWT). the space (d) and gait speed (v) of the 6MWT is used to investigate the aerobic skill and the going for walks means. It should be performed for my part and in response to the American Thoracic Society protocol (ATS),  in a managed indoor ambiance 46 meters in size and rectangular fit. The 6MWT is incredibly reproducible in overweight people (r = 0.926; ninety five% CI 0.816–0.972, P < 0.001),  and it has been used in stories with KOA. [75,96–100]Chair sit and attain verify (CSR). The CSR check is a secure and socially proper option to average flooring take a seat-and-attain assessments as a fairly correct and stable measure of hamstring flexibility.  The subjects can be allowed three attempts for every limb and the best of these scores shall be recorded to the closest centimeter.The returned Scratch test (BS). The BSS is a measure of typical shoulder latitude of action which includes measuring the gap between (or overlap of) the center fingers in the back of the back with a ruler.  After a familiarization trial, this examine is assessed twice, alternately with each hands, and the top-rated price of each and every registered.five-Repetition sit-To-Stand examine (FRSTST). this is a common measure of practical electricity. ICC values for it show from respectable to high look at various-retest reliability for adults and subjects
with osteoarthritis. [100,103,104]
Knee energy. A dynamometer Biodex gadget III (Biodex medical Inc., Shirley, new york, u.s.a.A.) may be used for isokinetic evaluation of knee energy (flexor and extensor muscle mass) and isometric knee strength, bilaterally. the first leg to be proven can be the less affected leg or, in dubious situations, the dominant leg. Gravity correction to torque is calculated at forty five levels (0 = straight leg). The latitude of movement for testing is pre-decided from 20° to 80° for all topics. The exclusion of excessive degrees of knee action was centered due to the undeniable fact that they are regularly occurring to be painful and regularly non-executable with the aid of these patients, namely full extension as a result of quadriceps weak spot an identical techniques, based on the dynamometer used, were adopted in different surveys involving the same population. [105–110]Maximal Isokinetic electricity is measured on a concentric/concentric mode, at angular velocity of 60°/s. among the low velocities' group, the 60°/s had been used in other experiences and will supply superior stability for this population.  The subjects should operate one set with minimal overload for habituation and 2 units of 3 repetitions with a 120-2d leisure between units. The subjects should still be oriented to function the examine by means of exerting optimum force on the isokinetic arm through the whole range of circulation. all the way through the look at various vigorous verbal encouragement shall receive to each discipline. The set with greater extension top torque along side the lowest coefficient of version might be chosen for evaluation.The perspective of most advantageous torque of the knee extension received from each and every area in the isokinetic examine should be chosen for the isometric examine. Maximal knee extension isometric verify will be applied in one set of 3 repetitions all over 5 seconds with 30 seconds relaxation interval between repetitions. The better of the three force-time curve may be chosen in accordance with the bigger peak.just before dimension, the discipline shall be are seated on the dynamometer with knee and hip joints at 90°. Crossover shoulder, stomach and knee straps, as well as a lap belt may be used to restrain the subjects move. The lever arm pad is strapped across the decrease leg, 2 centimeters above the lateral malleolus of the fibula. The axis of rotation of the dynamometer should still be aligned with knee joint's axis of rotation. Joint heat-up will be performed by gentle free actions of flexion and extension of the knee.The Handgrip strength verify (HST). This look at various evaluates maximal isometric drive of the muscle tissue of the hand and forearm. although the demo of this analyze will not have hand OA, this examine has been utilized in obese people as a hallmark of total physique strength and functionality. [112,113] The adopted protocol for this project is the same that turned into used for Portuguese adults in the country wide observatory.  ahead of the test, the grip dynamometer should still be adjusted to the dimension of the hand of each field. field might be standing with hands along the body without contact with the trunk and elbow a bit bent at 200°. checking out is first finished by way of dominant hand followed through the non-dominant one. The drive have to be carried out throughout the expiratory part and valsalva maneuver may still be prevented. After three trials, if the difference between each cost is inside 3 kg, the check is considered achieved. If a bigger difference is followed, then the test might be repeated after ample rest time. The best repetition should be chosen for additional evaluation.
Morphology and body Composition
physique composition. physique mass index could be calculated as mass (measured in kilograms by a typical calibrated scale) divided with the aid of top squared (measured in meters). A DXA scanner (QDR 4500A, fan-beam densitometer, utility version eight.21; Hologic, Waltham, usa) might be used to measure total body lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC). DXA measures the attenuation of X-rays pulsed between 70 and 140 kV synchronously with the line frequency for every pixel of the scanned photo. in accordance with the protocol described through the brand, a step phantom with six fields of acrylic and aluminum of varying thickness and established absorptive homes will be scanned alongside each subject to function an external general for the evaluation of different tissue accessories. The equal technician shall position the subjects, function the scans and execute the analysis the use of the general evaluation protocol. according to check-retest the usage of 10 topics, the coefficient of variation (CV) in PICO personnel for FM and FFM changed into 2.6 and 1.5% respectively, and the full error of measurement (TEM) and the CV have been 0.02 kg and 1.7% respectively.Anthropometry. The anthropometric measurements that will be amassed with the aid of this analyze shall include peak, physique mass, perimeters (waist, hip, center thigh, patella shank and foot breadth. The aforesaid measures will probably be accumulated by an ISAK accredited anthropometrist the usage of tactics centered by means of ISAK  apart from in the case of patellar circumference, foot diameter and belly sagittal diameter, which will be received in keeping with up to now validated approaches. [116–118] The intra-observer technical error for circumferences and diameters measures in the pilot study ranged from 0.2 -0.4.
The gait protocol used on the present examine turned into tailored from thought look at, taking into consideration their laboratory certain gadget.
records collection and analysis: movement seize of the gait should be accrued with 10 cameras Qualisys (Oqus-300) operating at a frame price of 200Hz. Forty six reflective markers may still be positioned in predefined anatomical protuberances and used for the reconstruction of decrease limb segments using visible 3D application (C-movement, Inc., Germantown, MD). To cut back noise, the movement records is filtered, using a low pass Butterworth filter, with a cutoff frequency of 15Hz. ground reaction force will be gathered with two drive platforms (Kistler AG, Winterthur, Switzerland) and AMTI (superior Mechanical know-how, Inc, Watertown, MA), synchronized with the motion trap system.
The verify will be carried out in a 15 meters walkway, six successful trials are amassed from each participant and three may still be chosen for subsequent analysis. A trial includes beginning on the platform approximately 2 meters behind the preliminary timer and going for walks previous the first beam of gentle to prompt the timer. as the participant walks and passes the second beam of light the timer will cease and speed will be recorded. The participant will flip round and wait for orientations to perform identical trial within the opposite course.
In typical, KOA subjects
walk at a slower speed and cadence, with a protracted stance section, providing a static and dynamic varus alignment, displaying smaller flexion and greater knee adduction second (KAM).[12,34,120,121] right here kinematic and kinetic outcomes should still be analyzed from the gait look at various:
Gait velocity. Freely chosen pace is slower in individuals with Knee OA being correlated with high floor response forces all the way through heel strike;
Gait Cycle features. Swing and stance part duration, stride frequency, stride size, knee and hip ROM and angular velocity;
floor reaction Forces. The vertical, anteroposterior and mediolateral force accessories could be recorded with a force platform. laptop application can be used to calculate length, amplitude and impulse of the reaction forces;
Knee Adduction moment (KAM). Knee adduction moment (KAM) is considered a sound parameter to infer the level of mechanical loading. healthy subjects display notably larger abduction moments than OA subjects
and the exterior adductor moment has been linked to the construction and development of medial compartment OA in affiliation with the varus alignment installing by means of expanding the compressive forces throughout the knee. additionally, there is a big inverse affiliation between the top of knee adduction second throughout late stance and the volume of knee ache which might also represent a compensatory mechanism to cut back medial tibiofemoral joint load within the surroundings of knee pain;
Adduction Angular Impulse (AddImp). The essential of the frontal airplane exterior joint moments (adduction and abduction) over time right through the stance phase, providing a purposeful measure of gait in preference to normalized KAM. This measure has been constructive to differentiate hundreds in distinct OA severity;[125,126]
Knee Extension moment. people with knee pain and vulnerable muscles, as a defensive mechanism, seem to stay away from the quadriceps muscle recruitment during load acceptance in stance section, showing a decreased knee peak extension moment;
Hip Extensor second. OA subjects
going for walks at an identical speeds of match one's maintain their jogging pace with the aid of increasing hip range of motion and its velocity. more suitable hip extensor moments may indeed assist to hold running velocity, however this doesn't appear to be the case with the hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments, that have been considerably lower;
Hip exterior Abduction moment. individuals with knee OA seems to have a higher involvement of hip adductor muscular tissues to compensate a vulnerable quadriceps and hip abductors.[12,127]
due to the fact this is a longitudinal look at, walking pace may change and should be measured at every testing moment (baseline and after intervention). One successful trial is defined because the one by which the participant's total foot is placed on the floor enviornment of the force platform while jogging within ± three.5% of the freely chosen velocity.
The freely chosen pace should still be assessed within the biomechanical verify day before the placement of markers, in as far as every discipline shall walk barefoot within the walkway unless a stabilization of going for walks velocity is followed. always the latter stabilization occurs after crossing of the walkway 5–6 instances. The velocity is monitored using an infrared photocell manage equipment (mannequin E3F2-R4B4-M, OMRON) set with 7.3 m apart on the hip level, interfaced with a processor chiefly constructed to list the time and calculate the pace as a function of the distance.
foreign physical undertaking Questionnaire (IPAQ). The brief kind of IPAQ became chosen since it is easy to practice. regardless of its legal responsibility having been established in many nations and with distinctive populations,[128–130] stories have indicated that the IPAQ-SF customarily overestimates genuine
activity. youngsters, this instrument might be used for controlling the volume of physical pastime alongside the look at, and not for any classification of physical recreation stage. All participants shall receive a outdated rationalization about the way to comprehensive the questionnaire, and their answers could be tested throughout the interview. information could be processed in response to IPAQ instructions.
the load and lifestyle stock (WALI). The WALI is designed to obtain demographics counsel, weight and dieting histories, ingesting and recreation habits, and relationships with household and chums. The Portuguese version (IPEV) and the system by which it became translated is posted in a countrywide book. The PICO mission will use simplest the sections G, k and Q of the Portuguese edition (IPEV) for controlling alcohol and tobacco consumption, dietary patterns and clinical historic.
Our primary measures are IL-6 and IL-10. These cytokines are continuously implicated in OA pathogenesis and showed large improvement with weight reduction in ADAPT. they can also measure hsCRP as an standard marker of chronic inflammation and TNFα and TNFα soluble receptor 1 (sTNFR1) because they're also implicated in OA pathogenesis. Leptin, an adipokine that raises synthesis of TGFβ, a accepted stimulator of osteophyte formation, will even be measured.
For assessing IL-6, IL-10, hsCRP, TNFα, sTNFαR1 and leptin, venous blood samples (approximately 10 ml per seek advice from) could be accrued into dry tubes and EDTA tubes by using general methods within the morning after at the very least four h quick without any category of exercise.
Blood can be centrifuged at 1500 x g for 10 min to separate serum from the cloth in the dry tubes and plasma from crimson blood cells within the EDTA tubes. Serum and plasma can be frozen at 80°C for posterior evaluation by ELISA the use of commercially attainable kits.
Descriptive facts, together with frequencies for express variables and ability with regular deviations (SD) for continual variables with standard distribution and median for skewed distributions should be used to describe subject's traits. Normality can be confirmed the use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov look at various. For continuous effect measures, changes in suggest exchange (baseline minus publish-intervention) might be compared between companies using evaluation of covariance adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. Comparisons between agencies (CG and AEG) at baseline and post intervention might be carried out by impartial-pattern t-checks or Mann–Whitney U verify if equal variance isn't assumed. adjustments inside group should be analyzed by using paired scholar's t exams or by way of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank check when normality is not assumed. A combined mannequin analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) could be performed for interplay analyses adjusted for BMI with two inside-participant factors of 6MWT (baseline) and 6MWT (submit-intervention) and between two agencies (CG and AE). Statistical evaluation should be performed using IBM SPSS records 20.0 and MedCalc Statistical utility (MedCalc software, Mariakerke, Belgium). multiple Linear regression analyses will be carried out to have in mind the abilities covariates that may enhance the rationalization of the variability of effects (6MWT, power and KOOS dimensions). Statistical magnitude could be set at P < 0.05 (2- tailed) for all analyses. impact sizes may be calculated for all measures with an effect size of 0.2 considered small, 0.5 medium and nil.eight massive.